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Tensile and water absorption properties of jute and pineapple fiber reinforced polyester composites

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  • Save International Journal of Composite Materials 2017, 7(2): 72-76 DOI: 10.5923/j.cmaterials.20170702.04 Tensile and Water Absorption Properties of Jute and Pineapple Fabric Reinforced Polyester Composite Md. Reazuddin Repon1,2,*, K. Z. M. Abdul Motaleb1, M. Tauhidul Islam1,2, Rajib Al Mamun1, Md. Mizanur Rahman Mithu3 1Department of Textile Engineering, Khwaja Yunus Ali University, Sirajgonj, Bangladesh 2Department of Textile Engineering, Mawlana Bhashani Science and Technology University, Tangail, Bangladesh 3Department of Mechanical Engineering, Khwaja Yunus Ali University, Sirajgonj, Bangladesh Abstract The role of natural fibers reinforced hybrid composite materials is growing at an increasing rate in the field of engineering and technology due to their considerable properties. The objective of this study is to examine the tensile strength, elongation percentage, Young’s modulus and water absorption percentage of jute and pineapple fabric reinforced polyester composite. Unsaturated polyester resin was used as matrix material. The properties of manufactured composite were evaluated experimentally using computerized UTM machine according to ASTM standards. The results revealed that the tensile properties were increased with the increase of composite thickness. The values of tensile strength and Young’s modulus of pineapple fabric composite were exhibited higher than the jute composite and the quite opposite trend were observed in case of elongation and water absorption percentage. Keywords Tensile properties, Water absorption, Jute fabric, Pineapple fabric, Polyester resin, Composite 1. Introduction Composites are a versatile and valuable family of materials that can solve problems of different applications and facilitate the introduction of new properties in materials [1]. In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in finding new applications of natural fibre reinforced composites. Natural fibres appear to be the outstanding materials which come as the viable and abundant substitute for the expensive and nonrenewable synthetic fibre. Natural fibre is promising reinforcement for use in composites on account of its low cost, low density, stiffness, high specific strength and modulus, no health risk, easy and safe handling, light weight, easy availability, renewability, non-abrasiveness, easy processing, non-toxicity, high flexibility, acoustic insulation and much lower energy requirement for processing [1, 2]. Natural fibers like sisal, banana, jute, oil palm, pineapple, kenaf and coir have been used as reinforcement in composite [3]. Natural fibre based composites are under intensive study due to their eco-friendly nature and peculiar properties such as acceptable specific properties, ease of separation, enhanced energy recovery, CO2 neutrality, biodegradability, and recyclable nature [4]. * Corresponding author: (Md. Reazuddin Repon) Published online at Copyright © 2017 Scientific & Academic Publishing. All Rights Reserved Among all of these natural fibres, Pineapple leaf fibres (PALF) have admirable mechanical properties. PALF is removed from the leaves of the plant Ananus cosmos. PALF is dominatingly comprised of cellulose (70–82%), lignin (5–12%) and ash (1.1%). The higher mechanical properties of pineapple fibre are associated with its high cellulose content and comparatively low micro-fibrillar angle [5]. Another natural fibre, Jute performs comparatively better among the rice straw fibre, bagasse, stramineous fibre, cocos fibre, hemp, flax, ramie, banana, cotton, coir, sisal, etc., due to the inexpensive and commercial availability in a required form [6]. It can also be substituted for conventional fibres in many applications and has been applied as reinforcement to eco-composites and bio-composites [5]. Jute is an important bast fiber and comprises of bundled ultimate cells, each containing spirally oriented micro- fibrils bound together. Therefore, jute composites may exhibits outstanding mechanical properties and could be an ideal solution for wood substitution [1, 5]. Many researchers have investigated the various mechanical, thermal and physical properties of pineapple and jute fibre reinforced composites [7-20]. Different matrix materials were used in different research. Among them, the commonly used matrixes are polyester resin [7, 10, 13, 17, 18, 19, 21], natural rubber [9], polypropylene [11, 13, 15], polyethylene [22-24], polycarbonate [25], epoxy resin [14, 23, 26], phenol formaldehyde [27]. It has been found that the mechanical and physical properties of jute and pineapple composites are highly International Journal of Composite Materials 2017, 7(2): 72-76 73 inconsistent and depend on geographic origin of fibres, climatic growth conditions and processing techniques. The objective of this research work is to study the mechanical properties of jute and pineapple fabric by incorporating them into polyester resin matrix to prepare the composites at various volumes. The composites were tested to evaluate the tensile properties such as tensile strength, elongation percentage and Young’s modulus. Water absorption percentages were also investigated. used as a catalyst. Table 1. Fabric specification Quality parameters Weave structure Ends Per Inch (EPI) Picks Per Inch (PPI) Areal weight (GSM) Value Jute Pineapple Plain Plain 46 54 28 34 210 186 Figure 3. Molecular structure of methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (a1) (b1) 2.2. Methods (c1) (d1) Figure 1. (a1) Jute plant (b1) Jute fibre (c1) Jute yarn (d1) Jute fabric (a2) (b2) (c2) (d2) Figure 2. (a2) Pineapple plant (b2) Pineapple fibre (c2) Pineapple yarn (d2) Pineapple fabric 2. Materials and Methods 2.1. Materials Jute and pineapple fabrics having plain weave structures were collected from Bangladesh Jute Research Institute, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Unsaturated polyester resin and methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEKP) were purchased from Nasim Plastic Industries Limited, Dhaka, Bangladesh. MEKP was 2.2.1. Sampling Thicknesses of samples were recorded by digital slide calipers. Average results of three readings from different place along the sample have taken for measuring the each thickness. Different samples are identified as mentioned table 2. Table 2. Sample Identification Sample types Jute composite of 1.25 mm thickness Jute composite of 1.36 mm thickness Jute composite of 1.45 mm thickness Pineapple composite of 1.58 mm thickness Pineapple composite of 1.67 mm thickness Pineapple composite of 1.78 mm thickness Identification A B C D E F 2.2.2. Fabrication of Composites Jute and Pineapple fabric reinforced polyester composites were prepared by hand layup technique [28]. Jute and Pineapple fabric were cut with a dimension of 30cm ×30 cm. A glass plate of the dimension 40cm ×40 cm was placed on a suitable place. A mylot paper with similar dimension to the glass plate was cut and placed on the glass plate. According to fabric weight, polyester resin was taken in a beaker and 2% MEKP was added. These two chemicals were mixed vigorously with an agitator. Half of the mixture was poured on to the mylot paper and spread over the area similar to the fabric with a plastic spreader. Then jute fabric was placed on to the polyester resin mixture and rolled with hand roller machine. Then rest of the mixture was poured on to the fabric and rolled. After it was covered with another mylot paper and rolled with the hand rolling machine to remove unwanted air bubbles and another glass plate was placed upon it. A dead weight of 15 kg was loaded on the arrangement for 4 hours. Finally the dead weight was unloaded and two layer of the mylot paper were separated 74 Md. Reazuddin Repon et al.: Tensile and Water Absorption Properties of Jute and Pineapple Fabric Reinforced Polyester Composite from the composite. Thus, jute fabric reinforced polyester composite was obtained. Same process was followed to produce pineapple fabric composite. The amounts of polyester resin were varied for producing composite of different thicknesses. Where, Wi= Initial weight (oven dry weight) and Wf= Final weight (after immerse in water). 3. Results and Discussion 3.1. Tensile Properties Jute Pineapple Figure 4. Photographs of composite samples 2.2.3. Testing of Samples The tensile properties such as tensile strength (TS), elongation at break percentage (EB%) and Young’s modulus (Y) of the prepared composites were evaluated by a universal testing machine (UTM) (Model: H50KS-0404, HOUNSFIELD, series S, UK) at Institute of Radiation and Polymer Technology Laboratory, Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, Dhaka, Bangladesh. The specimens were prepared according to ASTM D638 standard. Crosshead speed of 10 mm/min and a gauge length 50 mm were maintained. Equation 1, 2 and 3 were used for measuring the tensile strength, elongation at break percentage and Young’s modulus respectively [28]. Tensile strength, (TS) = Fmax A (1) Where, Fmax= Maximum load applied to the sample and A= Cross-sectional area of the sample. Percentage of elongation-at-break was obtained by the following relation: EB (%) =  ∆Lb L0  ×100 (2) Where, ∆Lb = Extension at break point and L0= Original length of the sample. Young’s modulus, (Y) = dσ (3) dε Where, dσ = Stress at yield point and dε = Strain at yield point For the measurement of water absorption percentage, the cut samples were kept in a oven at 80°C for 24 hr. It was taken out from the oven and immediately weighed. Then, composite samples were immersed in a static water bath at 25 °C for time interval of 10 minutes (up to 60 minutes). After certain periods of time, samples were taken out from the bath and wiped by tissue paper, then weighed. Water uptake percentage was determined by using the equation 4. Water absorption (%) =   W f − Wi   ×100 (4)  Wf  Tensile Strength (MPa) 3.1.1. Tensile Strength Figure 5 depicts the tensile strength of jute and pineapple fabric reinforced polyester composite. It is clearly evident from the figure 1 that with the increasing of the thickness, the tensile strength is increasing both for jute and pineapple fabric reinforced polyester composite. Regarding jute composite, the tensile strength of samples B and C were increased 35.28% and 52.92% respectively compared to the sample A. Concerning the tensile strength of pineapple fabric composite, the samples orders were found as D

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