eduzhai > Physical Sciences > Materials Sciences >

Method for converting municipal waste plastics into liquid hydrocarbon fuel with activated carbon

  • sky
  • (0) Download
  • 20211030
  • Save International Journal of M aterials and Chemistry 2012, 2(5): 208-217 DOI: 10.5923/j.ijmc.20120205.05 Method of Converting Municipal Proportional Waste Plastics into Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuel by Using Activated Carbon Moinuddin Sarker*, Mohammad Mamunor Rashid, Mohammed Molla , Muhammad Sadikur Rahman Natural State Research, Inc. Department of Research and Development, 37 Brown House Road (2nd Floor), Stamford, CT-06902, USA Abstract The demand for fossil fuel is at an all t ime h igh worldwide. Annually ~30 billion barrels of petroleu m is being consumed worldwide. In this busy society, transportation is vital and, for transportation, petroleum is an obligation. All the major forms of business, agricultural, exports and imports depend on transportation. Transportation requires petroleum to function. Vehic les in the road require fuels, a irway transportation requires Aviation fuel and sea transportation requires fuel oil. Fo r not only transportation but also, petroleum is required to make all kind of daily usable plastics. Deplet ion of petroleum is inevitable at th is current rate of consumption. Emissions released fro m evaporation and co mbustion of these fuel contributes to too many environ mental and health problems; including emitting greenhouse gases that contribute immensely to global warming. Annually ~7 billion tons of carbon dioxide is released to the environment due to petroleum emission. Moreover, when the plastics are discarded into the landfill, it becomes waste plastic and since plastic is non-biodegradable, it can remain in the landfill fo r thousands of year. Waste plastics presence in the landfill causes environmental problems e.g., it can cause soil to decay. Alternative source of energy created fro m Solar, W ind, Hydrogen Fuel, Bio mass Fuel, Bio-Diesel, Green Diesel, Bio-ethanol, and Geo-thermal has been proposed as a solution to these problems. A developed process of thermally breaking down the hydrocarbon of chains of plastic has been studied and imp lemented to produce a liquid fuel in the presence of activated carbon. The activated carbon acts as a filter to absorb dye from the waste plastic during the thermal process to increase the quality of the final product. This fue l can be used for all kinds of transportation, and will e mit much less emission compared to the current commerc ial fue l and it will be cost effective. Keywords Waste Plastic, Fuel, Activated Carbon, Thermal, GC/MS, FT-IR 1. Introduction In recent years the production and consumption of plastics have increased drastically; as a consequence the responsible disposal of plastic wastes has created serious social and environmental arguments. At present both land filling and incineration of plastic wastes are widely practiced. In Japan, the percentage of municipal plastic wastes, as a fract ion of mun icipal solid waste (MSW), that was land filled in the early 1980s was estimated to be 45%, incineration was 50%, and the other 5% was s ubjected to s eparation and recycling[1]. In the USA, more than 15% of the total MSW was incinerated in 1990; only about 1% of post-consumer plastics were recycled[2– 4]. Land filling of plastic wastes is expected to decrease in the future as landfill space is depleted and plastic wastes are resistant to environmental degradation. Co-incineration of plastic wastes with other municipal solid * Corresponding author: msarker@naturalstat eres (Moinuddin Sarker) Published online at Copyright © 2012 Scientific & Academic Publishing. All Rights Reserved wastes may be increasingly practiced, because the high caloric value of p lastics can enhance the heating value of MSW and facilitate an efficient incineration, wh ile their energy content can also be recovered. But the potential relationship between plastics fed into an incinerator and the formation of so me highly to xic pollutants such as dioxins and furans is still unclear. It has been suggested that the chlorine content in PVC and other plastics is related to the formation o f d io xins and furans, which are ch lorinated polynuclear aro matic co mpounds. And although there is considerable evidence that these pollutants would still be generated in the absence of plastics, environmental pressures against incineration have never completely d isappeared. Plastic wastes can be classified as industrial and munic ipal plastic wastes according to their origins; these groups have different qualities and properties and are subjected to different management strategies. Industrial p lastic wastes are those arising fro m the plastics manufacturing and processing industry. Usually they are homogeneous or heterogeneous plastic resins, relatively free of contamination and available in fairly large quantities. Recycling technologies for industrial plastic wastes are currently based on pelletization 209 International Journal of M aterials and Chemistry 2012, 2(5): 208-217 and mold ing into low grade plastic products; the recycled products have poor mechanical and color qualities and a lower market value[5]. The reclaimed product outputs of Japan in the early 1980s already amounted to some 15% of total industrial p lastic wastes[1]. Thus for industrial plastic wastes, repelletization and remolding seem to be a simp le and effective means of recycling. But when plastic wastes are heterogeneous or consist of mixed resins, they are unsuitable for rec la mation. In this case therma l crac king into hydrocarbons may provide a suitable means of recycling, which is termed chemical recycling. Municipal plastic wastes normally remain a part of municipal solid wastes as they are discarded and collected as household wastes. Plastics usually account for about 7% of the total MSW by weight and much more by volume. In order to recycle municipal plastic wastes, separation of plastics from other household wastes is required. Although MSW separation technologies have been studied extensively, it is still not possible to classify MSW mechanically and obtain marketable fract ions. If household wastes are separately disposed into three parts: (1) co mbustibles such as paper, kitchen waste, text iles, and wood, (2) inco mbustibles such as metals, glass, ceramics, and (3) p lastics, then the collected plastics will be mixed plastic wastes with major co mponents of PE, PP, PS, PVC, etc. For mixed p lastics some mechanical separation equipment is currently availab le[1, 6]. For example, using a wet separation process mixed plastics can be separated into two groups: those with a density greater than water such as PS and PVC, and those with a density lower than that of water such as PE, PP and expanded PS. The latter group is much larger than the first group. Consequently, recycling of mun icipal plastic wastes should deal with plastic mixtures of low and high PE, PP and PS, provided that the above separation procedures are practiced. Typical co mposition of such plastic mixture will be three parts PE, one part PP and one part PS. More investigations are needed to identify the sources and properties of plastic wastes, and their suitability fo r various recycling methods such as repelletization, remo lding and pyrolysis[7]. So me other research group also performed with p lastic to fuel production process with thermal degradation or thermal cracking process[8-10], catalyt ic cracking process[11-13], pyrolysis process[14-15] and kinetic method[16] also applied for plastic to fuel energy conversion process. Natural state research, Inc uses thermal degradation process to convert industrial and municipal waste mixtu re plastics to hydrocarbon liquid fuel. Activated carbon was added as a dye removing purposes because it’s removed the different color dyes of plastics from fuel products. As a result fuel color co mes clear and transparent. 2. Experimental Section 2.1. Material Waste plastics raw materials collected fro m local area grocery stores and coffee shops. The waste plastics collected comes with foreign materials such as paper, sand, food, coffee, insect etc. After collection waste plastic are separated out of all fo reign material. Waste plastic components are a mixtu re of white co lor milk containers, red co lor coffee cups, transparent food containers, black co lor food containers and some different color shopping bags. Separated waste plastics are washed with liquid soap and dried in room temperature. During the washing period of the waste plastics a considerable amount of waste water is generated. The waste water is kept into a separate container for waste water treatment. The waste water is treated with acidic and alkali method with coagulation and flocculation process. For the waste water treat ment process potash alum and sodium hydroxide solution with different normality is used. 2.2. Sample Preparation and Pre-analysis Wash plastics are cut into small pieces, ~3-4 inch2 using scissor. The small p ieces of plastics are put into the grinder mach ine and grounded into 2-3 mm pieces. Grounded plastic mixed with ratio wise equally. Four category of waste plastic (HDPE, LDPE, PP & PS) was uses for the liquefaction process and ratio was 25% each samp le by weight. The raw materials were analysed by using Perkin Elmer GC/M S with pyroprobe for solid materials and solid samp le vo latile temperature with pyroprobe 1200ºC. GC and MS result showed raw materials compound structure and FTIR was use for materials functional group and functional g roup wave band energy. TGA (Py ris-1) was used for materials onset temperature wh ich was representing liquefaction average temperature. 2.3. Experi mental Process Plastic to fuel production process into laboratory scale was use thermal degradation at temperature 25-420 ºC under atmospheric pressure and under fume hood. For the experiment 1 kilogram o f samp le was used in a 316 stainless steel reactor. Reactor temperature can range up to 500 ºC. 25% LDPE, 25% HDPE, 25% PP and 25% PS with 5% activated carbon in a fu lly closed system. Waste plastic sample were put into the reactor chamber with activated carbon and heating started from room temperature up to 420 ºC. When the plastics started to melt as temperature was increased vapor started to form inside the reactor, the vapor then passes through a condenser unit. The condensation of the vapor becomes liquid in a form called p lastic fuel (See fig.1). This waste plastic to fuel conversion rate is 89%. This produced fuel density is 0.78 g. / ml. No catalyst and no extra chemical used in this conversion process because already meta l content are present in the plastic raw materia ls. Those meta l contents act as a catalyst for breaking down long chain hydrocarbon to short chain hydrocarbon during the thermal degradation process. During plastic convert to fue l a ll vapor are not turn into fuel some vapor portion is co me out as a light gas because gas boiling point is minus temperature. To clean the light gas (C1-C4) a 0.5 (N) NaOH/NaHCO3 and M oinuddin Sarker et al.: M ethod of Converting M unicipal Proportional Waste Plastics into 210 Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuel by UsingActivated Carbon after alkali wash light gases passing through also water wash and at the end we put light gas into gas storage tank by using small pu mp. This light gas percentage is 7%. The produced plastic fuel passes through RCI fuel purificat ion unit due to centrifugal force fuel making clean and water and sediment come out separately its call fuel sediment, this sediment and water we can retreat. Activated carbon was added in the process to remove plastic dye because during the production period plastic industries use about 3% additive for different shape or model and that dye affects the quality of the end product. The activated carbon filters the heavy contents of the dye and neutralizes them during the thermal degradation process. Waste plastic to fuel production period some black solid residue is generated from the plastics. This residue amount is about 4%. This solid residue has good Btu value and experiment run time was 4.50 hours. Name of Test Meth o d AST M D1976 Figure 1. Proportional waste plastic into fuel production process Table 1. HDPE, LDPE, PP and PS waste plastic trace metal data Name of Metal Silver Aluminium Boron Barium Calcium Chromium Copper Iron Pot assium Lit h ium Magnesium Molybdenum Sodium Nickel Phosphorus Lead Ant imony Silicon Tin Tit anium Vanadium Zinc HDPE (White Color) ppm <1.0 130.0 <1.0 <1.0 452.1 <1.0 <1.0 20.3 <1.0 <1.0 15.2 <1.0 23.4 <1.0 39.3 <1.0 <1.0 104.2 <1.0 2.2 <1.0 2.2 LDPE (Re d Color) ppm <1.0 197.4 2.8 <1.0 962.6 <1.0 <1.0 6.0 35.4 <1.0 25.1 <1.0 45.2 <1.0 26.7 <1.0 <1.0 90.2 <1.0 2.7 <1.0 2.6 PP (Transparent) ppm <1.0 <1.0 <1.0 <1.0 30.5 <1.0 <1.0 3.9 <1.0 <1.0 2.8 <1.0 5966 <1.0 <1.0 <1.0 <1.0 5.3 <1.0 <1.0 <1.0 <1.0 PS (Re d Color) ppm <1.0 59.8 2.8 2.7 33420 <1.0 <1.0 47.2 28.4 16.8 842.7 <1.0 118.8 <1.0 <1.0 <1.0 <1.0 17.2 <1.0 60.8 <1.0 89.9 211 International Journal of M aterials and Chemistry 2012, 2(5): 208-217 3. Results and Discussion 3.1. Anal ysis Technique For analysis purpose a GC colu mn was use (Perkin Elmer) with a elite-5MS length 30 meter, 0.25 mm ID, 0.5u m df, maximu m program temperature 350ºC and min imu m bleed at 330 ºC (cat.# N9316284) and also it can be used -60ºC. Capillary colu mn internal silica coating of viscous liquid such as carbowax or wall bonded organic materia ls. GC/MS operational purpose was used carrier gas as Heliu m gas. For GC method setup init ial temperature 40ºC and in itial hold for 1 minute. Final temperature setup is 330ºC. Temperature ramping rate is 10ºC/ minutes up to 325ºC and hold for 15 minutes 325 ºC. Total experiment runs time 44.50 minutes. MS method setup for samp le analysis MS scan time 1 to 44.50 minutes and mass detection 35- 528 EI+ centroid. Internal scan time used 0.15 second. Mass detection is creating m/ z ratio. FT-IR analysis purpose used Perkin Elmer FT-IR spectrum 100, range 4000- 400 cm-1, number of scan 32 and resolution 4. Na Cl ce ll was used as a fuel sample holder. NaCl cell thickness is 0.05 mm. Liquid fuel analysis by Perkin Elme r DSC and analysis purpose used temperature 5-400ºC, ramping rate 10ºC/ min. 50 micro liter alu miniu m pan used for sample holding and nitrogen gas used for carrier. TGA (Pyris-1) was used raw sample analysis and by TGA can measurement raw sample onset temperature. Temperature profile was use for raw sample analysis 50 -800 ºC and ramping rate was 10ºC/ min. Heliu m gas was use as carrier gas. 3.2. Raw Materi al Analysis Result ICP (Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy) analysis results showed (table 1) waste plastic has different category of metal present into raw material in ppm level. A ll metal co mes fro m the p lastic manufacture period when different kind of additives and catalyst are added for better quality and shape. Some research study indicates that waste plastic has different kind of additives. Plastics are manufactured by poly merization, polycondensat ion, or polyaddition reactions wheremono meric mo lecules are joined sequentially under controlled conditions to produce high-molecu lar-weight polymers whose basic properties are defined by their co mposition, mo lecular weight distribution, and their degree of branching or cross-lin king. To control the polymerization process, a broad range of structurally specific proprietary chemical compounds is used for polymerizat ion init iation, breaking, and cross-linking reactions (pero xides, Ziegler-Natta, and metallocene catalysts). The polymerized materials are admixed with proprietary antio xidants (sterically hindered phenols, organophosphites), UV and light stability improvers (hindered amines and piperidyl esters), antistatic agents (ethoxy lated amines), impact modifiers (methacrylat ebutadiene- styrene compounds), heat stabilize rs (methyl t in mercaptides), lubricants (esters), biostabilizers (arsine, thiazoline, and phenol compounds), and plasticizers used to modify the plasticity, softness, and pliability of plastics (phthalates and esters)[17]. For that reason waste plastics conversion into fuel doesn’t need any kind of catalyst. Without catalyst waste plastic can conversion into fuel by using this technology. Table 2. RawMaterials WastePlastic CHN% by EA-2400 (CHN Mode) Name of Meth o d AST M D5291.a Name of Waste Pl as tic HDP E LDP E PP PS Carbon % 83.57 85.33 79.93 78.60 Hydrogen % 14.78 14.31 14.17 7.21 Nitrogen % <0.30 <0.30 <0.30 <0.30 EA-2400 material analysis result indicate that C, H, N percentages are present into raw materials shown table 2. TGA (Pyris-1) raw materials analysis result showed HDPE waste plastic inflection point temperature 430.98 ºC and onset temperature 420.65 ºC, LDPE waste plastic inflection temperature 457.11 ºC and onset temperature 421.53 ºC, PP waste plastic inflection temperature 403.72 ºC and onset temperature 359.63 ºC and PS waste plastic inflection temperature 364.88 ºC and onset temperature 326.62 ºC. 3.3. Li qui d Fuel Analysis Intensity (a.u.) 0 10 20 30 40 50 Retention Time (M) Figure 2. GC/MS chromat ogram of proport ional wast e plastic into fuel M oinuddin Sarker et al.: M ethod of Converting M unicipal Proportional Waste Plastics into 212 Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuel by UsingActivated Carbon Numbe r of Peak 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 Table 3. GC/MS chromatogram of proport ional wast e plast ic int o fuel compound list Re tention Time (min .) 1.51 1.61 1.91 2.31 2.48 2.56 3.05 3.14 3.60 3.72 4.55 4.60 4.81 5.15 5.30 5.94 6.02 6.43 7.00 7.52 8.05 8.54 8.63 8.77 8.89 9.31 9.69 9.79 10.05 10.28 10.42 11.13 11.18 11.85 11.98 12.43 12.69 13.33 13.45 13.71 14.08 14.72 14.83 15.82 16.05 16.15 16.37 17.31 17.41 18.27 18.53 18.62 18.98 19.71 19.80 20.87 20.97 22.02 22.12 23.30 25.75 27.06 Com poun d Name Propane 1-Propene, 2-methylP ent an e Pentane, 2-methyl1-Pentene, 2-methyl- Hexane 1-Pentene, 2,4-dimethyl2,4-Dimethyl 1,4-pentadiene 1-Heptene Heptane Cyclobutane, (1-methylethylidene)1-Heptene, 4-methylToluene 1 -Oct en e Oct an e Cyclohexane, 1,3,5-trimethyl2 ,4 -Dimethy l-1 -h ept en e Et hy lbenzen e 1 ,3 ,5 ,7 -Cy clo oct at etraen e Benzene, (1-methylethyl)Benzene, propylα-Met hy lsty ren e 1-Decene Decane Octane, 3,3-dimethylBenzene, 1-propenyl2-Undecanethiol, 2-methylBicyclo[3.1.0]hex-3-en-2-ol, 2-methyl-5-(1-methylethyl)-, (1α,2α,5α)Cyclooctane, 1,4-dimethyl-, trans1-Undecene Undecane Benzene, (3-methyl-3-butenyl)(2,4,6-T rimethylcyclohexyl) methanol 1-Dodecene Dodecane Decane, 2,3,5,8-tetramethyl2 -Hexy l-1-oct ano l 1-Tridecene Tridecane 1-Decanol, 2-hexylTrichloroacetic acid, hexadecyl ester 1 -Tet radecen e Tet radecan e Benzeneacetic acid, 4-pentadecyl ester 1 -P ent adecen e P ent adecane Trichloroacetic acid, hexadecyl ester 1-Hexadecene Hexadecane Benzene, 1,1'-(1,3-propanediyl) bis3-Heptadecene, (Z)Heptadecane 1-Hexadecanol, 2-methylE-1 5-Hept adecenal Oct adecan e 9-Nonadecene Nonadecane 1-Eicosene Eicosane Heneicosane Oct aco san e Heptacosane Com poun d Fo rmul a C3H8 C4H8 C5H12 C6H14 C6H12 C6H14 C7H14 C7H12 C7H14 C7H16 C7H12 C8H16 C7H8 C8H16 C8H18 C9H18 C9H18 C8H10 C8H8 C9H12 C9H12 C9H10 C10H20 C10H22 C10H22 C9H10 C12H26S C10H16O C10H20 C11H22 C11H24 C11H14 C10H20O C12H24 C12H26 C14H30 C14H30O C13H26 C13H28 C16H34O C18H33Cl3O2 C14H28 C14H30 C23H38O2 C15H30 C15H32 C18H33Cl3O2 C16H32 C16H34 C15H16 C17H34 C17H36 C17H36O C17H32O C18H38 C19H38 C19H40 C20H40 C20H42 C21H44 C28H58 C27H56 Mole cular Weight 44 56 72 86 84 86 98 96 98 100 96 112 92 112 114 126 126 106 104 120 120 118 140 142 142 118 202 152 140 154 156 146 156 168 170 198 214 182 184 242 386 196 198 346 210 212 386 224 226 196 238 240 256 252 254 266 268 280 282 296 394 380 213 International Journal of M aterials and Chemistry 2012, 2(5): 208-217 Waste plastic to produced fuel analysed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometer (GC/MS) seen fig.2 and table 3. GC-MS analysis of proportionally mixture of HDPE, LDPE, PP & PS plastics to fuel in order to measure retention time and molecu lar weight nu merous aliphatic, aromat ic derivatives and different types of hydrocarbon compounds and hydrocarbon chain ranges C3 to C28 . At the initial stage of the analysis phases at retention time and mo lecular weight 44, co mpound is Propane ( C3H8), retention time 1.61 and molecular weight 56, and compound is 1-Propene, 2-methyl-( C4H8) , retention time 1.91 and mo lecular weight 72, co mpound is Pentane (C5H12), retention time 2.31 and molecular weight 86, functional group is Pentane-2-methyl-( C6H14), retention time 2.48 and molecular weight 84, functional group is 1-Penetene-2-methyl-( C6H12), retention time 2.56 and mo lecular weight is 86, co mpound is Hexane,(C6H14), retention time 3.05 and molecular weight 98,co mpopund is 1-Pentene-2,4-dimethyl-( C7H14), retention time 3.72 and mo lecular weight 100, co mpound is ( C7H16),retention time 4.55,molecu lar weight 96, co mpound is Cyclobutane, (1-methylethylidene)- ( C7H12),retention time 4.60 and mo lecular weight 112, co mpound is 1-Heptene, 4 – methyl- (C8H16), retention time 4.81 and molecular weight 92,co mpound is Toluene (C7H8), retention time 5.15 and mo lecular weight 112,co mpound is 1-Octene (C8H16) etc. In the middle phase of the analysis index in according with the retention time and mo lecular weight also different types of compound is appeared. According to the their retention time and mo lecular weight such as retention time 6.02 and mo lecular weight 126, co mpound is 2, 4-dimethyl-1-heptene (C9H18), retention time 7.52 and molecu lar weight 120, compound is Benzene, (1-methylethyl)-( C9H112), retention time 8.89 and molecu lar weight 142, co mpound is Octane,3,3-d imethyl-( C10H22),retention time 9.79 and mo lecular weight 152, co mpound is Bicyclo[3.1.0] hex-3-en-2-ol, 2-methyl-5-(1-methylethyl)-, (1α,2α,5α)-, ( C10H16O),retention time 10.05 and molecu lar weight 140, compound is Cyclooctane, 1,4-d imethyl-, trans-( C10H20), retention time 10.28 and mo lecular weight and mo lecular weight 154,co mpound is 1-Undecene (C11H22), retention time 10.42 and molecu lar weight 156, co mpound is Undecane, ( C11H24), retention time 11.13 and molecular weight 146, co mpound is Benzene, (3-methyl-3-butenyl)-,( C11H14), retention time 11.18 and molecular weight 156, compound is (2,4,6-Trimethylcyclohexy l) methanol (C10H20O), retention time 11.85 and molecu lar weight 168, compound is 1-Dodecene (C12H24), retention time 11.98 and molecular weight 170, co mpound is Dodecane (C12H26) as well as retention time 12.43 and molecu lar weight 198, compound is Decane, 2,3,5,8-tetramethyl-,( C14H30), retention time 12.69 and molecular weight 214, co mpound is 2-Hexy l-1-octanol-,( C10H16O), retention time 13.33 and mo lecular weight 182,co mpound is 1-Tridecene,( C13H26), retention time 13.45 and molecular weight 184, co mpound is Tridecane (C13H28), retention time 13.71 and molecular weight 242, co mpound is 1-Decanol-2-hexy l- ( C10H16O), retention time 14.72 and molecular weight 196, co mpound is 1-Tetradecene, ( C14H28), retention time 14.83 and molecular weight 198, co mpound is Tetradecane, ( C14H30), retention time 16.05 and molecu lar weight 210,co mpound is 1-Pentadecene, ( C15H30) etc. In the end phase of the analysis index in according to retention time and mo lecular weight several compounds are emerged. Ho wever in accordance to retention time 16.37 and molecular weight 212, co mpound is Pentadecane, ( C15H32), retention time 16.37 and molecular weight 386,co mpound is Trichloroacetic acid, hexadecyl ester (C18H33Cl3O2), retention time 17.41 and mo lecular weight 226, co mpound is Hexadecane,( C16H34), retention time 18.98 and molecu lar weight 256, co mpound is 1-Hexadecanol,2-mehtyl- (C17H36O), retention time 19.80 and molecu lar weight 254, co mpound is Octadecane ( C18H38), retention time 20.97 and molecu lar weight 268,co mpound is Nonadecane, (C19H40), retention time 22.12 and molecu lar weight 282, co mpound is Eicosane, ( C20H42), retention time 23.30 and molecular weight 296, compound is Heneicosane, (C21H44), retention time 25.75 and molecular weight 394, co mpound is Octacosane, ( C28H58) and ultimately retention time 27.06 and mo lecular weight 380, co mpound is Heptacosane, ( C27H56) etc. Table 4. FT-IR spectrum of proportional waste plastic to fuel functional group Numbe r of Wave 2 3 4 5 8 Wave Numbe r (cm -1) 3077.91 2936.32 2729.80 2671.87 2185.74 Functional Group Name H Bonded NH C-CH3 C-CH3 C-CH3 C-C= -C-C Numbe r of Wave 18 19 22 23 29 Wave Numbe r (cm -1) 1631.40 1603.83 1440.16 1377.41 1029.91 Functional Group Name Non -Co n jugat ed Co n jugat ed CH2 CH3 Secondary Cyclic Alcohol 11 1870.93 Non -Co n jugat ed 30 1020.53 Acet at es 12 1816.65 Non -Co n jugat ed 31 989.91 -CH=CH2 13 1797.55 Non -Co n jugat ed 32 965.28 -CH=CH- (trans) 14 1742.17 Non -Co n jugat ed 33 909.21 -CH=CH2 15 1720.87 Non -Co n jugat ed 36 728.08 -CH=CH- (cis) 16 1684.15 Co n jugat ed 37 697.90 -CH=CH- (cis) 17 1642.02 Co n jugat ed M oinuddin Sarker et al.: M ethod of Converting M unicipal Proportional Waste Plastics into 214 Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuel by UsingActivated Carbon 140.0 135 130 125 120 115 110 105 100 95 90 85 80 75 70 65 % T 60 55 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 -5 -10 -15.0 4000.0 3648.71 3600 2028.11 2185.74 2336.32 2313.15 1953.91 1870.93 1939.22 1742.17 1720.87 1684.15 1816.65 1797.55 633.36 2671.87 2729.80 1576.54 1202.52 1106.75 1155.55 812.62 3077.91 2936.32 1603.83 1301.80 1642.02 1631.40 1495.17 1440.16 1377.41 1081.50 1029.91 1020.53 965.28 989.91 909.21 774.94 697.90 728.08 3200 2800 2400 2000 1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600.0 cm-1 Fi gure 3. FT-IR spect rum of proport ional wast e plast ics to fuel Figure 4. DSC graph of proportional waste plastics into fuel 215 International Journal of M aterials and Chemistry 2012, 2(5): 208-217 After fuel samp le analysis by FT-IR (Spectru m 100) was found some functional group seen fig.3 and table 4. Fro m FT-IR fuel spectrum showed alkane, alkene and alkyne group are present. FT-IR analysis traces follo wing types of functional group are found such as wave number 3077.91 cm-1, functional group is H bonded NH, ascending wave number 2936.32 cm-1, 2729.80 cm-1, 2671.87 cm-1 ,functional group is C-CH3. Again several wave number same as fo llo wing ascending way suppose 1870.93 cm-1 ,1816.65 cm-1 ,1797.55 cm-1,1742.17 cm-1 ,1720.87 cm-1,1631.40 cm-1 compound is Non-Conjugated, then wave number 1684.15 cm-1 and 1642.02 cm-1,1603.83 cm-1 compound is Conjugated. Subsequently wave/frequency number 1440.16 cm-1,compound is CH2,wave number 1377.41 c m-1,functional group is CH3,wave nu mber 1029.91 cm-1,co mpound is Secondary Cyclic A lcohol, wave number 1020.53 cm-1,functional group is Acetates. Again iterat ively wave number 989.91 cm-1and 909.21 cm-1 wave functional group is –CH=CH2 and fo llo wing way wave number 965.28 cm-1,functional group is -CH=CH-(t rans) and finally wave number 728.08 cm-1 and 697.90 cm-1 functional group is –CH=CH- (cis) respectively. Table 5. Liquid fuel analysis of AST M test result Name of Method AST M D240 AST M D240 AST M D4052 AST M D86-07b AST M D86-07b AST M D86-07b AST M D86-07b AST M D86-07b AST M D86-07b AST M D86-07b AST M D86-07b AST M D86-07b AST M D86-07b AST M D86-07b AST M D86-07b AST M D86-07b AST M D86-07b AST M D86-07b AST M D86-07b AST M D86-07b AST M D2500 AST M D2500 AST M D97 AST M D97 AST M D2386 AST M D2386 AST M D2624 AST M D2624 AST M D5453 AST M D1500 AST M D4176 AST M D4176 AST M D4176 AST M D4176 AST M D4737 AST M D5708_MOD AST M D5708_MOD AST M D5708_MOD AST M D482 AST M D93 AST M D93 AST M D4530 AST M D664 AST M D664 AST M D130 AST M D2709 AST M D5291 AST M D5291 AST M D5291 Te st Name Gross Heat of Combustion Gross Heat of Combustion (Calculated) API Gravity @ 60°F IBP Recovery 5% Recovery 10% Recovery 20% Recovery 30% Recovery 40% Recovery 50% Recovery 60% Recovery 70% Recovery 80% Recovery 90% Recovery 95% Recovery FBP Recovery Recovery Residue Total recovery Loss Automatic Cloud point Cloud Point Pour point Pour point Freezing Point Freezing Point Temp erat ure Electrical Conductivity Sulfur AST M Color Appearance: Clean and Bright Free Water Content/Particles Haze Rating Special Observation Cetane Index by D4737 (Procedure A) Vanadium Nickel Iron Average Ash Procedure Used Corrected Flash Point Average Micro Method Carbon Residue 10% dist illat io n Procedure Used Acid Number Copper Corrosion @ 50°C (122°F)/3 hrs. Sediment and Water Carbon Content Hydrogen Content Nitrogen Content Re sults 19118 129142 42.9 75.6 110.0 122.8 138.9 153.3 168.9 200.0 240.0 273.3 301.1 335.6 368.9 376.1 96.0 2.0 96.0 2.0 10.9 51.6 8 46.4 10.0 50 23.3 6 2.3 <4.5 P ass No Water or ParticlesPresent 2 No Special Observations 41.8 <1.00 <1.00 <1.00 <0.001 Below Room T emperature 0.3 < 0.10 1a 0.005 87.30 12.53 < 0.75 Units BTU/lb BTU/gal °API °C °C °C °C °C °C °C °C °C °C °C °C °C Vol% Vol% Vol% Vol% °C °F °C °F °C °F °C pS/M Mg/kg ppm ppm ppm OR, mg/Kg Wt % °C Wt % mgKOH/gm Vol% Wt % Wt % Wt % M oinuddin Sarker et al.: M ethod of Converting M unicipal Proportional Waste Plastics into 216 Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuel by UsingActivated Carbon Table 6. Solid black residue analysis result by ICP Te st Me thod Name AST M D1976 Metal Name Aluminium Arsenic Ant imony Boron Barium Beryllium Calcium Cadmium Chromium Copper Iron Lead Lit h ium Re sults ( ppm) 1,517 24.5 <1.0 3.3 11.8 <1.0 134,300 <1.0 4.0 3.8 538.7 <1.0 29.3 Te st Me thod Name AST M D1976 Metal Name Magnesium Manganese Nickel Pot assium Sodium Silver Selenium Silicon Tin Tit anium Vanadium Zinc Re sults ( ppm) 1,480 8.8 11.9 127.7 213.4 <1.0 <1.0 8.4 273.7 558.4 <1.0 433.3 Table 7. Carbon, Hydrogen and Nitrogen percentage into solid residue by EA-2400 (CHN mode) Name of Method AST M D5291.a Name of Sample Solid black residue Carbon % 56.51 H y drogen % 0.95 Nitrogen % <0.30 In accordance with some functional group were calculated energy value of each band of derived co mpound such as for H bonded NH, energy value is 6.11x10-20 J, for C-CH3 energy value is 5.83x10-20 J, for C-C=--C-C energy value is 2.04x10-20 J, for Non-Conjugated energy value is 3.71x10-20 J and for co mpound –CH=CH-(cis) energy value is 1.44x10-20 J respectively. Euclidean Search Hit List: 0.456 F91080 TRICHLOROACETONITRILE, 0.448 F37460 2,5-DIHYDROXYACETOPHENONE, 0.366 F65155 2-M ETHOXYPHENYLA CETONITRILE, 0.356 F65470 3-M ETHYLA CETOPHENONE, 0.327 F54150 2-HYDRO XYA CETOPHENONE, 0.295 F22850 4-CHLOROACETO PHENONE, 0.292 F64700 2-M ETHOXYA CETOPHENO NE, 0.272 F00508 ETHYL A CETOHYDROXAMATE, 0.262 F38558 3,4-DIM ETHOXYA CETOPHENONE, 0.229 F65156 3-M ETHOXYPHENYLA CETONITRILE, (Perkin Elmer FT-IR tutorial library). For proportional waste plastic to fuel analysis purpose was use DSC equip ment for measuring boiling point temperature and enthalpy value (fig.4). For fuel analysis purpose was used Nitrogen (N2) gas as a carrier. Program setup was initial temperature 10ºC and height 400ºC and temperature ramp ing rate was per minute 10ºC. After fuel analysis found some informat ion such as onset temperature 158.94ºC, peak temperature 159.5 ºC, peak height 29.6585 mW and enthalpy delta H is 19040.5867 J/g. ASTM test also performed according to standard method as follo ws such as API Grav ity @60 ºF (ASTM D4052), Baro metric Pressure (ASTM D86), A STM color (ASTM D1500), metal analysis (ASTM D5708), Ash @775 ºC (ASTM D482) etc showed table 5, solid b lack residue ICP analysis result showed table 6 and black residue carbon , hydrogen and nitrogen percentage showed table 7. 4. Conclusions Waste plastic are major p roblem for environ ment. Waste plastics are releasing gas emission into environment because waste plastic are not bio degradable. This waste plastic can remain long period in landfill. The thermal degradation process applied with mixture waste plastics of high density polyethylene (HDPE), low density polyethylene (LDPE), Polypropylene (PP) and Polystyrene (PS) using stainless steel reactor with activated carbon. The polymer has been selected for the experiment 25% each of HDPE, LDPE, PP and PS by weight. The temperature used for thermal degradation at 25-420ºC. The obtained products are liquid fuel, light gas and black carbon solid residue. Various technique (Gas Chro matography and Mass Spectrometer, FT-IR and DSC) are used for produced fuel analysis. GC/MS result is showing hydrocarbon compound ranges fro m C3-C28 and light gas are present C1-C4. Using activated carbon with waste plastic its removing plastic dye fro m fuel, this activated used as filtered. Activated carbon is seated with black residue end of the experiment is not come out with liquid fuel. Activated carbon using with this experiment fuel is clean and color is bright yellow. Th is fuel burns cleaner and burning time is also longer. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author acknowledges the support of Dr. Karin Kaufman, the founder and sole owner of Natural State Research, Inc.,(NSR). The author also acknowledges the valuable contributions NSR laboratory tea m me mbe rs during the preparation of this manuscript. 217 International Journal of M aterials and Chemistry 2012, 2(5): 208-217 Packed-Bed Reactor'' Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2003, 42, 2074-2080 REFERENCES [1] Plastic Wastes: Resource Recovery and Recycling in Japan. Tokyo: Plastic Waste M anagement Institute, 1985. [2] Andrews GD, Subramanian PM , editors. Emerging Technologies in Plastics Recycling. ACS Symp Ser 513. Washington, DC: 1992. [10] Yongsangkim*, Youngseokkim and Sunghyunkim '' Investigation of Thermodynamic Parameters in the Thermal Decomposition of Plastic Waste-Waste Lube Oil Compounds '' Environ. Sci. Technol. 2010, 44, 5313–5317 [11] Jose M . Arandes,* Javier Erena, and Javier Bilbao ''Valorization of Polyolefins Dissolved in Light Cycle Oil over HY Zeolites under Fluid Catalytic Cracking Unit Conditions'' Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2003, 42, 3952-3961 [3] Curlee TR, Das S. Identifying and assessing of opportunity for plastics recycling. Resourc Conserv Recycl 1991; 5:343–63. [12] George M anos*, Arthur Garforth and John Dwyer '' Catalytic Degradation of High-Density Polyethylene over Different Zeolitic Structures'' Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2000, 39, [4] Yakowitz H. Incineration of M SW: scientific and technical 1198-1202 evaluation of the state-of the-art by an expert panel. Resourc [13] George M anos*, Isman Y. Yusof, Nikos Papayannakos and Conserv Recycl 1990; 4:241–51. Nicolas H. Gangas '' Catalytic Cracking of Polyethylene over [5] Bennett RA. Recycled plastics: product applications and potential. In: Andrews GD, Subramanian PM , editors. Clay Catalysts. Comparison with an Ultrastable Y Zeolite'' Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2001, 40, 2220-2225 Emerging Technologies in Plastics Recycling. ACS Symp Ser [14] A. M arcilla*, M . I. Beltran, and R. Navarro '' Evolution with 513. Washington, DC: 1992:26–38. the Temperature of the Compounds Obtained in the Catalytic [6] Bahr A. The sorting of plastic wastes. In: Thome-Kozmiensky KJ, editor. International Recycling Pyrolysis of Polyethylene over HUSY'' Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2008, 47, 6896–6903 Congress, Berlin, 1979. Berlin: Freitag Verlag, 1979: [15] R. W. J. Westerhout, J. Waanders, J. A. M . Kuipers,* and W. 1202–1210. P. M . van Swaaij '' Recycling of Polyethene and Polypropene [7] A.G. Buekens *, H. Huang, Catalytic plastics cracking for recovery of gasoline-range hydrocarbons from municipal plastic wastes, Resources, Conservation and Recycling 23 in a Novel Bench-Scale Rotating Cone Reactor by High-Temperature Pyrolysis '' Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 1998, 37, 2293-2300 (1998) 163–181. [16] Ahmad Rahman Songip, Takao M asuda, Hiroshi Kuwahara [8] J. Aguado*, D. P. Serrano and J. M . Escola'' Fuels from Waste Plastics by Thermal and Catalytic Processes: A Review'' Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2008, 47, 7982–7992 and Kenji Hashimoto* '' Kinetic Studies for Catalytic Cracking of Heavy Oil from Waste Plastics over REY Zeolite'' Energy & Fuels 1994, 8, 131-135 [9] M asamichi Akimoto*, Toshifumi Sato, and Tatsuro Nagasawa '' Hydrothermal Denitrogenation of Fuel Oil [17] Tullo, A. H. Plastic additives. Chem. Eng. News 2003, 81 (46), 36-42. Derived from M unicipal Waste Plastics in a Continuous

... pages left unread,continue reading

Document pages: 10 pages

Please select stars to rate!


0 comments Sign in to leave a comment.

    Data loading, please wait...