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Changes of optical properties of 3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic diimide (PTCDI) organic films with annealing temperature

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https://www.eduzhai.net American Journal of M aterials Science 2012, 2(4): 131-137 DOI: 10.5923/j.materials.20120204.06 Optical Properties of 3,4,9,10-Perylenetetracarboxylic Diimide (PTCDI) Organic Thin Films as a Function of Post-Annealing Temperatures M. El-Nahhas1, H. Abdel-Khalek2, E. Salem2,* 1Physics department, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Roxy 11757, Cairo, Egypt 2Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt Abstract In this work, effect of post-annealing on the structural and optical properties of thermally evaporated PTCDI films deposited on quartz substrates is reported. The optical properties were investigated using spectrophotometric measurements in wavelength range 200-2500 n m fo r as-deposited and annealed films with the same thickness at different temperatures. The XRD studies confirm the films have orthorhomb ic structure (PNA21) space group. The optical constants were accurately determined using reflectance and transmittance spectra. The dispersion of the refractive index is discussed in terms o f single oscillator model. In addition, the rat io of free carrier concentration to its effective mass was estimated. The absorption analysis has been also performed in order to determine the type of electronic inter-band transitions for the films. Both direct and indirect transitions are present. The direct and indirect bandgap energy decreases with increasing temperature. The decrease in the energy can be expla ined by increase of delocalized π electrons due to thermal annealing. Keywords Organic Th in Films, Optical Properties, So lar Cell 1. Introduction A great increase in demand for low cost, high effect solar cell has intensified research into imp roving current technology and developing cutting-edge next generation photovoltaic devices. Today, most commercial solar cells are made fro m silicon. Like many conventional semiconductors, silicon offers excellent, well-established electronic properties. Ho wever, the use of silicon or other conventional semiconductors in photovoltaic devices has been limited by the high cost of production. The fabrication of even the simp lest semiconductor cell is a co mp lex process that has to take place under tightly controlled conditions, and for this reason researchers have long considered organic alternatives. Organic semiconductors can often be made a flexible, lightweight and inexpensive form of solar cells. The technology for these solar cells is progressing and they are gaining popularity due to their environ mentally safe composition. Research into new technologies for the development of next generation photovoltaic has focused on the research and technical development of organic devices. Extended and π-conjugated organic semiconductors have received much attention due to their excellent electron ic * Corresponding author: eman_m_salem@yahoo.com (E. Salem) Published online at https://www.eduzhai.net Copyright © 2012 Scientific & Academic Publishing. All Rights Reserved performances. For examp le, the fluorescent dye 3,4,9,10Perylenetetracarbo xylic d iimide or PTCDI is used extensively as an industrial pig ment, because of its brilliant colour, strong absorption and fluorescence, and good thermal, chemical, and photochemical stability[1-4]. PTCDI and its derivatives are effective n-type organic semiconductors with various applications. For examp le, they are used as tunable laser dyes, light-harvesting materials, transistors, molecular switches, solar cells, and optoelectronic devices, such as light-emitting diodes, because of their unique optical and electrochemical properties[5-10]. There are indications that derivatives of perylenetetracarboxylic acid favour charge transfer due to large intermolecu lar coupling, and this may lead to the formation of charge transfer excitons[11,12]. Optical propert ies of active layer in solar cell are considered as trivial factor. Generally, it is believed that annealing can improve the crystallization and orientation of organic layer and influenced organic photovoltaic device efficiency significantly. Under therma l annealing processing, the refractive index (n) and ext inction coefficient (k) of the active layer varies with distinct temperature. Through the optical constant variation, optical property of the multilayer system (solar cell) can be optimized. Therefore, Post-growth annealing has been proved to be an efficient approach to improve crystalline quality and optical properties of o rganic thin films. In this work, post-growth annealing was performed on 3,4,9,10-Pery lenetetracarboxy lic diimide thin films grown by thermal evaporation at room temperature. Ex 132 M . El-Nahhas et al.: Optical Properties of 3,4,9,10-Perylenetetracarboxylic Diimide (PTCDI) Organic Thin Films as a Function of Post-Annealing Temperatures situ optical spectroscopic measurements were performed to investigate the optical properties of annealed PTCDI thin films . 2. Experimental Details Different PTCDI films with the same thickness of 400 n m were prepared by conventional thermal evaporation technique at a pressure of p= 2 ×10−4 Pa . Purified PTCDI powder (99.99% Sig ma Aldrich Co.) was loaded into a mo lybdenum cell with nozzle of 5 mm in diameter on the top. The flat quartz substrates were located above 15 cm fro m the source. The substrates were carefu lly cleaned by putting them in chro mic acid for 20 min and then they were washed several times with distilled water. After that the substrates were rinsed by isopropyl alcohol. The substrates were dried in a steam of dry n itrogen, and finally were cleaned by atomic bo mbard ment in an init ial stage of evacuation. The film thicknesses were controlled by using a quartz crystal thickness mon itor and subsequently calibrated interfero metrically by To lansky’s method[13]. A ll films were deposited at room temperature and the rate of deposition was 2.5 n m/s. After deposition, several films have been annealed at different temperatures under vacuum ( > 10−1 Pa ) for two hours. Roo m temperature XRD measurements (X'Pert PRO Philips X-ray diffractometer) were carried out using CuK α1 radiation in the ( θ − 2θ ) geo metry. The spectra of the films were scanned over the range of 5o to 90o (2 θ ), with a step rate of 0.02o (2 θ ) and a fixed counting time of 10s for each step, in order to obtain spectra with suffic ient signal to noise ratio. The transmittance T (λ) and reflectance R (λ) spectra of both as-deposited PTCDI and annealed films were measured at normal incidence at room temperature in the spectral range 200–2500 n m by using a co mputer-aided double-beam spectrophotometer (JASCO model V-570 UV– VIS-NIR). A blank quart z substrate was used as a reference fo r the transmittance scan. In order to calculate the refractive index (n) and the absorption index (k) of the thin films at different wavelengths, the following equations were applied: n = 1+ R + 1− R 4R (1− R )2 −k 2 (1) and =α 1 d ln   (1 − R  2T )2 +  (1− R )4 4T 2 + R 2     (2) k = αλ (3) 4π where α is the absorption coefficient and d is the film thickness. The experimental error in measuring the film thickness was taken as ±2%, in T and R as ±1% and in the calculated values of n and k as 3% and 2.5%, respectively. 3. Results and Discussion 3.1. Structural Investigati on Figure 1 shows the X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra of the powder, the as-deposited and the annealed PTCDI films. The CRYSFIRE & CHECKCELL co mputing programs[14,15] were used to index all the diffraction lines, calculate the Miller indices (hkl) and the interplanar spacing (dhkl) value for each diffraction peak and finally to calculate the lattice p arameters . Figure 1. XRD spectra of 3, 4, 9, 10-perylene-tetracarboxylicacid-diimide, PT CDI in powder form and thin film as indicated in the figure The analysis indicates that the films have orthorhombic structure (PNA21) space group with the following lattice parameters: a = 7.368 A o , b = 10.924 A o , c = 14.777 A o and α= β= γ= 90o . Table 1 gives the values of Miller indices hkl for each diffract ion peak, 2θ and the interplanar spacing (d hkl ) before and after refinement. These patterns also indicate that the as-deposited film is amorphous/nanocrystalline structure, wh ile the annealed film is crystallized with (201) and (202) orientations. Table 1. X-ray analysis for PTCDI powder No. θ2 measured 1 10.0467 2 11.9631 3 14.5169 4 16.2116 5 19.7454 6 23.1524 7 24.8825 8 26.9704 9 30.2900 10 33.3223 11 34.9576 12 41.0664 2θ calculated 10.061 11.968 14.489 16.214 19.755 23.178 24.888 26.998 30.271 33.433 34.958 41.066 d measured 8.785 7.3917 6.0965 5.4629 4.49247 3.83851 3.5754 3.30317 2.9482 2.6866 2.5645 2.19609 d calculad 8.785 7.389 6.108 5.462 4.491 3.835 3.575 3.298 2.950 2.666 2.564 2.1961 I Io 11.61 100 2.90 3.39 5.65 2.25 11.76 24.13 5.73 0.32 0.27 1.08 hkl (011) (002) (110) (020) (013) (113) (201) (202) (203) (115) (042) (044) 3.2. Optical characterizati ons The spectral behaviour of the trans mittance, T and reflectance, R measured at normal incidence in a wavelength range 200–2500 n m fo r as-deposited and annealed PTDCI films of thickness 400 n m is shown in Fig. 2. It is quite clear that the intensities of transmittance within the absorption American Journal of M aterials Science 2012, 2(4): 131-137 133 region increase by annealing process. Also, the maximu m reflectance intensity for as-deposited film and annealing temperature show that the reflectance intensities within the absorption region. In transparent region, ( λ > 1000 ) all films have the same behaviour o f T and R which indicate that the thickness does not change by annealing. for as-deposited and annealed PTCDI films. There are considerable differences in the intensity and in the position of the absorption peaks for the as-deposited and annealed films. It is clear that, there is a blue shift in the absorption edge and the intensity of the absorption peaks decreases with annealing temperature. Figure 2. The spectral dependence of the transmittance, T and reflectance, R for as-deposited and annealed PTCDI films with thickness of 400 nm Figure 4. Spectral dependence of the imaginary part of refractive index, k, for as-deposited and annealed PTCDI films The variation in the dispersion curve of the refract ive index (n ) for the as-deposited and the annealed PTCDI films are shown in Fig. 3. Figure 5. The variation of real part of complex dielectric constant with photon energy for as-deposited and annealed PTCDI films Figure 3. Spectral dependence of the real part of refractive index, n, for as-deposited and annealed PTCDI films The spectral behaviour exh ibits an anomalous dispersion in the range ( hν > 1.5 eV ) and a normal dispersion in the range ( hν < 1.5 eV ). At low photon energy, hν → 0 , the calculated value of rea l part of re fractive inde x decreases by an amount of ∆n =0.17 after annealing at 533 K. In addition (Fig. 3) shows three peaks at 1.8, 2.2 and 4.3 eV. There are visible variations in the intensity of these peaks with a b lue shift in the peak positions as a result of annealing. It is also found that the films with lo wer refractive index correspond to higher annealing temperature, leads to a decrease in mass density[16]. Figure 4 shows the variation of the imaginary part of the refract ive index, ext inction coefficient, k with photon energy Figure 6. The variation of imaginary part of complex dielectric constant with photon energy for as-deposited and annealed PT CDI films The complex dielectric constant, ε characterizes completely the propagation, reflection and loss of light in 134 M . El-Nahhas et al.: Optical Properties of 3,4,9,10-Perylenetetracarboxylic Diimide (PTCDI) Organic Thin Films as a Function of Post-Annealing Temperatures thin film structure and provide important information about the electronic structure of materials. The complex dielectric constant is given by: ε= (hν ) ε1(hν ) − i ε2 (hν ), tan δ = ε2 (4) ε 1 where ε=1 n 2 − k 2 is the real part and ε2 = 2nk is the imaginary part of the co mp lex dielectric constant, while tan δ is the loss factor. Figures 5 and 6 show the real and imaginary parts of the complex d ielectric constant, respectively. Hence, in the PTCDI films, the variation of ε1 as a function of photon energy follows the same behaviour as n, whereas the variation of ε2 follows the behaviour of k which is related to absorption coefficient α . Generally, the dispersion behaviour can be modelled if it is assumed to be the response of a set of Lorentzian oscillators of adjustable strength and position[19]. Accordingly, the dispersion of refractive index has been analysed by applying the single oscillator model, in the normal dispersion region, and using the well known Wemp le and DiDo menico equation[20,21]: n 2 −1 = E Ed E 2 − (hν )2 (8) o where Eo is the single oscillator energy (is related to the lowest direct gap) and Ed is the dispersion energy (is independent of both the absorption threshold (band gap) and the lattice constant)[20]. By plotting (n 2 −1)−1 versus (hν )2 and fitting the data to a straight line, Eo and Ed can be determined fro m the intercept, Eo Ed and the slope −1 Eo Ed . Figure 7. The variation in the loss factor with photon energy for the as-deposited and annealed PTCDI films The variation in the loss factor, tan δ with photon energy for the as-deposited and annealed PTCDI films is shown in Figure 7. The co mp lex optical conductivity σ= * (hν ) σ1(hν ) + i σ 2 (hν ) is related to the complex dielectric constant ε by the relation[17]: σ1 =ωε2εo (5) σ 2 =ωε1εo where εo is the permittiv ity of free space. The real σ1 and imag inary σ 2 parts of the optical conductivity as a function of the photon energy are shown in Figures 8 and 9, res p ectiv ely . It is also possible to calculate the volume and surface energy loss functions (VELF and SELF) by using the relatio n s [1 8] : V ELF =    ε 2 2 ε12 − ε 2 2    (6) ( ) SELF = ε 2 2 (ε1 + 1)2 + ε 2 2 (7) The volume and the surface energy loss function as a function of the photon energy for the as-deposited and annealed PTCDI films are shown in Figures 10 and 11. Figure 8. The variation of real part of optical conductivity with photon energy for as-deposited and annealed PT CDI films Figure 9. The variation of imaginary part of optical conductivity with photon energy for as-deposited and annealed PTCDI films Another model equation that is widely used is given by[23]: ε1 =n2 −k 2 =εL −    4π e2 2c 2ε o N m∗   λ 2  (9) American Journal of M aterials Science 2012, 2(4): 131-137 135 where εL is the lattice dielectric constant, e is the ele mentary charge, c is speed of light and N/ m* is the ratio of carrier concentration to the effective mass. The values of εL and (N/m*) are determined fro m the extrapolation of relation between n2 and λ 2 to λ 2 = 0 and fro m the slope of the graph for the as-deposited and annealed PTDCI films and listed in Table 2. general expression that relates the absorption coefficient to the energy band near absorption edge is given by[24]: For allo wed direct transitions (= α hν ) Ad (hν − E d g )1 2 (10) For indirect allo wed transitions (α hν=) Aind (hν − E ind g ± E phonon )1 2 (11) In the above eq u atio n s , E d g and E ind g rep res en t the band gap energy, while Ad and Aind are characteristic constant parameters, independent of photon energy, for direct and indirect transition, respectively. Figure 10. VELF as a function of photon energy for as-deposited and annealed PTCDI films Figure 12. Spectral behaviour of the absorption coefficient for the as-deposited and annealed PTCDI films Table 3. Values of energy gaps of as-deposited and annealed PTCDI films according to the band transition PT CDI E ind g1 (eV) As-deposited, 298 K 1.76 Annealed, 333 K 1.71 473 K 1.52 533 K 1.57 E ind g2 (eV) E d g1 (eV) 3.30 3.81 3.44 3.81 3.07 3.75 2.78 3.57 Figure 11. SELF as a function of photon energy for as-deposited and annealed PTCDI films Table 2. Dispersion paramet ers of the PTDCI films PTDCI As-deposited, 298 K Annealed, 333 K 473 K 533 K E o (eV) 2.909 2.744 2.319 2.356 E d (eV) 6.017 5.415 4.520 5.013 ε L 3.068 2.973 2.949 3.128 N / m* (gm-1 cm-3) 6.03 × 1046 6.03 × 1046 6.03 × 1046 6.03 × 1046 3.3. Optical Energy Gap The spectral distribution of the absorption coefficient ( α ) for as-deposited and annealed PTCDI films are shown in Fig. 12. The dependence of the absorption coefficient on the photon energy is important to obtain information about the energy band structure and the type of optical transition. The Plots of (α hν )2 versus (hν ) (allowed direct transitions) and (α hν )1 2 versus (hν ) (allowed indirect transitions) for the as-deposited and annealed PTDCI films are shown in Figs. 13 and 14 respectively. The extrapolat ion of the straight line graphs to zero absorption gives the values of the energy gap and these values are listed in Table 3. In case of indirect transition there are two different transitions. The value of the indirect energy gap decrease by increasing the annealing temperature. On the other hand, there is only one transition for d irect type of transition. The values of d irect energy gap also decreases by increasing the annealing temperatures. The decrease in the energy gap can be explained because of the thermal annealing results in mo re delocalized π electrons, the lowering of the band gap between π and π *, and the increase of the optical π - π * transition which results in the observed red shift in the gap[25,26]. 136 M . El-Nahhas et al.: Optical Properties of 3,4,9,10-Perylenetetracarboxylic Diimide (PTCDI) Organic Thin Films as a Function of Post-Annealing Temperatures REFERENCES [1] H. Zollinger, “Color chemistry: synthesis, properties and applications of organic dyes and pigments”, 2nd ed. VCH Publisher, New York, 1991. [2] J. Fabian, K. Zahradnik, "The search for highly colored organic compounds”, Agew. Chem., Int. ed. Eng., vol.28, pp.677, 1989. [3] H. Quante, Y. Geerts, K. Müllen, “synthesis of Soluble Perylenebisamidine Derivatives - Novel Long-wavelength Absorbing Dyes”, Chem. M ater, vol.9, pp.495, 1997. [4] L. Feiler, H. Langhals, K. Polborn, “Synthesis of perylene-3,4-dicarboximides-Novel highly photostable fluorescent dyes”, Liebigs Ann, vol.7, pp.1229, 1995. [5] S. K. Lee, Y. Zu, A. Herrmann, Y. Geerts, K. Müllen, A. J. Figure 13. 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A. Svec, D. Gosztola, G. L. Gaines, M . R. Wasielewski, “Picosecond Optical Switching Based on Biphotonic Excitation of an Electron Donor-Acceptor-Donor M olecule”, Science, vol.257, pp.63, 1992. [10] S. Tasch, E. J. W. List, O. Ekström, W. Graupner, G. Leising, P. Schlichting, U. Rohr, Y. Geerts, U. Scherf, K. M üllen, “Efficient white light-emitting diodes realized with new processable blends of conjugated polymers”, Appl. Phys. Lett, vol.71, pp.2883, 1997. Effects of post-annealing on the optical characterization of thermally evaporated PTCDI films have been carried out using spectrophotometric measurements. It was found that the refractive index of the as-deposited film increases with annealing. In addition, annealing affects the values of calculated dispersion parameters. The optical absorption spectra of the PTCDI film shows that the absorption spectra mechanis m is due to both direct and indirect transition. 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