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Physical and chemical properties of Borassus flabellifier "BF"

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https://www.eduzhai.net American Journal of M aterials Science 2013, 3(2): 25-28 DOI: 10.5923/j.materials.20130302.01 Physical and Chemical Properties of Borassus Flabellifier ‘BF’ Phadke Sushil1,*, Shrivastava B. D2, Dagaonkar N2, Mishra Ashutosh3 1Department of Physics Govt. Girls College, Dhar (M .P.), India 2Government P.G.College Dhar (M .P.), India 3School of Physics, Devi Ahilya University Indore (M .P.), India Abstract Borassus Flabellifier ‘BF’ stand in the socio-economy of the human race, apart fro m their significant contribution to beautify the urban landscapes as horticulture ornamentals because the use of BF in different manner in med icine and industries for different purposes. India is veritable emporiu m of medicinal and aro matic trees. It has been estimated those trees occurring in India are commonly useful. Neera natural liquid is useful for different purpose like in b iomed ical, chemical industries etc. Ultrasonic velocity has proved to be useful in understanding the physicochemical behaviour of the particular system. .Toddy (natural liquid of palm tree Borassus flabellifier) is chemically alcoholic behaviour on fermentation. It is used medicinally as a detersive astringent in intestinal troubles .Neera natural liquid is considered as a nutritious drink as containing a nu mber of minerals salts and high in p rotein. It also contains acids like ascorbic acid, nicotin ic acid and riboflavin. Neera syrup is produced when fresh Neera is heated and concentrated into syrup. This is used as a healthy drink in connection with Aurvade and other systems of medicine. Each liquid has a different ultrasonic velocity and angle of specific rotation; it’s depending on content and concentration of the liquid. The change in the wavelength of ultrasonic waves in different mediu m is due to the elastic properties and the induced particles vibrations in the mediu m. The study of propagation of ultrasonic wave in liquid systems and solids is now rather well established. Dielectric properties of wood have both theoretical and industrial applicat ions. They also provide a better understanding of the molecu lar structure of wood and wood-water interactions. Dielectric propert ies of wood were affected significantly by moisture content for all anisotropic directions. All the study was done by using NDT technique. The Sample were taken fro m District Dhar (M.P.) India Keywords Ult rasonic Velocity, Specific Rotation, Elastic, Dielectric, Non Destructive Technique (NDT), Borassus Flabellifier ‘BF’ 1. Introduction As ia is endowed with the world's greatest palm biodiversity, and also possesses the highest diversity of palm utilizat ion[1]. Palms Borassus Flabellifier ‘BF’ has a long history of management for both subsistence and commercial products, many of wh ich are d eep ly embedded in lo cal cultures. In Asia, traditional technologies of exploit ing wild and semi wild palm Borassus Flabellifier ‘BF’populations, as well as processing techniques associated with many of the palm p roducts, are generally mo re advanced than in the Neotropics, Native Asian palms Borassus Flabellifier ‘BF’ currently provide significant quantities of food, beverage, giber, rattan, construction material and other products. This article surveys edible products from 61 Asian palm Borassus Flabellifier ‘BF’ species. Using these examp les fro m Asia, suggestions are made as to how Neothropical palms could be * Corresponding author: sushilphadke5@gmail.com (Phadke Sushil) Published online at https://www.eduzhai.net Copyright © 2013 Scientific & Academic Publishing. All Rights Reserved managed and valorized fo r food and other useful products. Palm Borassus Flabellifier ‘BF’ shell[2] obtained fro m coastal part of southern India was studied for the removal for the adsorption of Hg (II) ions. Batch adsorption experiments were carried out as a function of pH, concentration of Hg (II) ions, time, temperature and adsorbent dose. There are innu merable medicinal uses for all parts of the Palmy ra palm Borassus Flabellifier ‘BF’. Briefly, the young plant is said to relieve biliousness, dysentery, and gonorrhoeal. Young roots are d iuretic and anathematic, and a decoction is given in certain respiratory diseases. The ash of the spadix is taken to relieve heartburn and enlarged spleen and liver. The bark decoction, with salt, is used as a mouth wash, and charcoal made of the bark serves as a dentifrice. Sap fro m the flo wer stalk is prized as a tonic, d iuretic, stimulant, la xat ive and anti phlegmatic and a mebic ide. Sugar made fro m this sap is said to counteract poisoning, and it is prescribed in liver d isorders. Candied, it is a remedy for coughs and various pulmonary co mplaints. Fresh toddy, heated to promote fe rmentation, is bandaged onto all kinds of ulcers. The cabbage, leaf petioles, and dried male flower spikes all have diuretic act ivity. The pu lp of the mature fru it 26 Phadke Sushil et al.: Physical and Chemical Properties of Borassus Flabellifier ‘BF’ relieves dermat itis. 1.1. Descripti on of Borassus Flabellifier ‘BF’ Tree Palmy ra palm Borassus Flabellifier ‘BF’ is a native of tropical Africa but cu ltivated and naturalized throughout India. The Palmy ra palm Borassus Flabellifier ‘BF’ is a large tree up to 30m high and the trunk may have a circu mference of 1.7m at the base. There may be 25-40 fresh leaves. Leaves are leathery, gray green, fan-shaped, 1-3 m wide, fo lded along the mid rib; are d ivided to the centre into 60-80 linear- lanceolate, 0.6-1.2 m long, marg inally spiny segments. Their strong, stalks, 1-1.2 m long, are edged with hard spines. In India, it is p lanted as a windbreak on the plains. It is also used as a natural shelter by birds, bats and wild animals. The flo wers are produced in big clusters of long, wh ite string-like inflo rences. The coconut-like fru its are three-sided when young, becoming rounded or more or less oval, 12-15 cm wide, and capped at the base with overlapping sepals. When the fruit is very young, this kernel is hollow, soft as jelly, and translucent like ice, and is accompanied by a watery liquid, sweetish and potable. The chief product of the Palmyra Borassus Flabellifier ‘BF’ is the sweet sap (toddy) obtained by tapping the tip of the inflorescence, as is done with the other sugar palms and, to a lesser extent, with the coconut. The toddy ferments naturally within a few hours after sunrise and is locally popular as a beverage. Rubbing the inside of the toddy-collecting receptacle with lime paste prevents fermentation, and thereafter the sap is referred to as sweet toddy, which yields concentrated or crude sugar (gur in India; jaggery in Cey lon); mo lasses, palm candy, and vinegar. Palmy ra palm jaggery (gur) is much mo re nutritious than crude cane sugar. Traditionally, the Indian 'Nadar' community are the people who make their living fro m this tree using its wood, fruits, sap, stems, petioles and leaves to process a variety of food products, beverages, furniture, building materials, and h an d icrafts . Palmy ra palm Borassus Flabellifier ‘BF’ jaggery (gur) is much more nutrit ious than crude cane sugar, containing 1.04% protein, 0.19% fat, 76.86% sucrose, 1.66% g lucose, 3.15% total minerals, 0.861 % calciu m, 0.052% phosphorus; also 11.01 mg iron per 100 g and 0.767 mg of copper per 100 g. The fresh sap is reportedly a good source of vitamin B comple x. Ultrasonic velocities have been very widely used to study binary liquid mixture to obtain structure and interactions present in the liquid systems[3]. It is known for a long time that ultrasonic frequency offers unique features for characterizing liquid based food products in their intact state, with no sample preparation and no sample destruction. It can be used for on-line process control, which makes it even more attractive. Ho wever, it is used still mostly in research environment, except perhaps a single industrial application for monitoring alcohol content. The specific rotation of a liquid material is defined as the observed angle of optical rotation when plane polarized light is passed through a sample. The specific rotation of a pure material is an intrinsic property of that material. In liquids and solutions, the optical activity[4], is due to molecular s tru ctu re. The anisotropic materials are widely used for many structural applicat ions, the determination of mechanical properties is critical fo r ensuring reliable performance[5]. The knowledge of co mp lete elastic stiffness is essential for ensuring reliable performance. The knowledge of co mplete elastic stiffness is essential for modelling and evaluating the mechanical behaviour of materials under severe loading conditions. Ultrasonic techniques are however qualified for non destructive measurement of all of the elastic constants of such materials. The main aim of the present study is that untreated wood had higher dielectric constant than their poly mer co mposites [6]. Electric conductivity of wood is an important property. For good electric insulating property a substance should be porous, good strength properties on the other hand demand a compact structure. Characterizat ion of BF liquid toddy was done by FTIR , the preferred method of infrared spectroscopy. In IR spectroscopy, IR radiat ion is passed through a sample. So me of the infrared radiat ion is absorbed by the sample and some of it passed through. The resulting spectrum represents the mo lecular absorption and transmission, creating a mo lecular fingerprint of the sample.. Like a finger print no two unique mo lecular structures produce the same infrared spectrum. This makes in frared spectroscopy useful for several types of an aly s is . 2. Material and Method The material was used in all the measurement and calculation were co llected fro m Kukshi, District Dhar (M.P.), India. All the measurement of ult rasonic velocity, specific rotation and elastic constant were recorded in our laboratory. Other details are given in our co mmunicat ion Sushil Phadke et. al. 2009[7].The value of dielectric constant was found at UGC-DA E Consortium for Scientific Research Centre Indore (M.P.) India. The details of dielectric constant were given in our publicat ion Phadke Sushil et. al. 2010 and 2011[6]. The chemical analysis and identificat ion by IR[8] done at Choksi laboratory, Indore (M .P.), India. 3. Result and Discussion Table 1 shows the mechanical, thermodynamic, optical and electrical values measured and calculated by the author in their previous commun ications and publications. Table 1. Ea rlier reported values of different physical properties of BF by the author. Table two shows the various substances was present in the chemical ana lysis of BF toddy. American Journal of M aterials Science 2013, 3(2): 25-28 27 Table 1. Earlier reported values of different physical properties of BF by the author S.No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Physical property Density Viscosity Surface tension Ultrasonic velocity Adiabatic compressibility Isentropic compressibility Acoustic impedance Inter molecular free length viscous relaxat ion t ime Gibb's energy Specific rotation Dielectric Constant Elastic constant Female Elastic constant Male Values in MKS Units 0.9802 x 103 0.486 x 10- 3 5.8328 x 10-2 1571.6 m/s 4.1305 x 10 -10 4.2 x 10 -10 1.5405 x 10 6 0.4294 x 10 -10 0.2766 x 10 -12 0.1844 x 10 -20 4.03 at 10% 40.9 at 1.0 Hz 3.355 to 8.552 x 10 9 2.513 to 7.259 x 10 9 Table 2. Chemical analysis of BF natural liquid toddy S.No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Descript io n Alcohol Riboflavin Niasin Ascorbic acid Thiamine Mo ist ure Prot ien Crude fibre Fat Carboh y drat es Calories Pot assium, as K Iron Phosphorous Result 28.21% Not found Not found Not found Not found 96.91% 0.28% Nil Nil 2.57% 11.40 Kcal/100 gm 0.08% 24.23 ppm 46.90 ppm The result of IR spectroscopy for Vita min -C, B1, B2, and B3 and for natural liquid of BF toddy was shown in table 4. Figure 1 shows the retention time and intensity in AU for Vitamin-C, B3, B2, and B1. and figure 2shows the value of retention time and intensity in mV for Natura l liquid toddy of BF. S.No. 1 2 3 4 5 Table 3. IR for Vitamin-C, B3, B2, B1 Name Ascorbic Acid Niacin Vit amin -B2 Vit amin -B1 Ret ent ion t ime 2.29 2.74 5.08 15.03 29.99 Area 1894 1681405 1456876 3354128 2462404 Area % 0.021 18.773 16.266 37.448 27.492 S.No. 1 2 3 Table 4. IR for Natural liquid toddy of BF Name Et h ano l Et h ano l Et h ano l Retention time 0.03 0.78 3.83 Area 5347 225513 3120848 Area % 0.16 6.728 93.112 Figure 1. IR graph of table 28 Phadke Sushil et al.: Physical and Chemical Properties of Borassus Flabellifier ‘BF’ Figure 2. IR graph of table 4 4. Conclusions [1] Johnson D., Palm Utilization and M anagement in Asia: (2) Examples for the Neotropics, Bull. Inst. etudes and Ines. , Fro m the previous study and according to the 21pp727-740, (1992). characterizat ion of the BF natural liquid, we can use BF [2] Kushwaha Shilpi, Sodaye Suparna, Padmaja P.P., liquid and solid for the fo llo wing purposes: Equilibrium, Kinetics and Thermodynamic studies for 1. Industrial use of BF. 2. Medical use of BF. 3. adsorption of Hg (II) on palm shell powder, World academy Constructional purpose of BF. 4. To give financial support of science and technology (43) , pp 600-606 (2008) . to tribal’s 5. To reduce crime rate in tribal bac kwa rd area [3] Phadke Sushil, Shrivastava B.D. & M ishra Ashutosh, Ultra Scientist Physical Sciences (ISSN 0970-9150) Vol. 21 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Number (3) pp 499-504 (Dec 2009) [4] Phadke Sushil, Shrivastava B.D. & M ishra Ashutosh, One of the authors (Sushil Phadke) is h ighly thankful to University Grants Co mmission, New Delh i for awarding a Comparative study of natural liquid “Neera” (Borassus Flabellifier ‘BF’) with sucrose at different concentration. Minor Research Project. Ou r sincere thanks to Dr. T. P. Vyas, [5] Phadke S., Shrivastava B.D. and M ishra A. Some Principal Govt. P.G. College, Dhar (M P) India and Dr. S.N. Mandloi, Principal Govt. Girls Co llege Dhar (M P) India for providing facility to b ring samples fro m Dist. Dhar (M.P.) India. We are very thankful to Mr. Ritusing Kalesh of Dist. investigation of the elastic. Constants for Borassus Flabellifier (BF) crystals by ultrasonic technique, BVS II National Conference at Devi Ahilya University, Indore. (M .P.) India, (PH-94) (Des.2009). Dhar (M.P.) India fo r provid ing samp le. We are also thankful [6] Phadke Sushil, Shrivastava B.D., M ishra A.,Acoustics and of Dr. A.M. Awasthi and Dr. S. Bharad waj for providing their lab facility to measure dielectric constant at UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research Centre Indore (M.P.) Dielectric properties of Borassus Flabellifier ‘BF’ with frequency at 308K, Proceedings of 20th International Congress on Acoustics, ICA 2010 Sydney, Convention Centre Sydney, New South Wales, Australia 23-27 August India. 2010, CD- ROM , ISBN: 978-0-646-54052-8, (2010). REFERENCES [7] Phadke Sushil, Shrivastava B.D. & M ishra Ashutosh, binary Liquid mixtures of Borassus flabellifier and ethanol, (ISBN: 978-81-8424-555-4) NSU-XVIII conference held at VIT University Vellore (TN) (21-23), pp. 119-123 (Des. 2009). [8] Abbas O.,Rebufa C., Dupuy N.,Kister J.FTIR- multivariate curve resolution monitoring of photo - fanton degradation of phenolic aqueous solution by Talanta, (77)pp 200-209 (2008).

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