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Ethnobotanical uses of medicinal plants in Alai River Valley in Western Himalayas of Pakistan

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  • Save International Journal of Plant Research 2012, 2(1): 21-34 DOI: 10.5923/j. plant.20120201.04 The Ethno Botanical Uses of Medicinal Plants of Allai Valley, Western Himalaya Pakistan Faizul Haq Department of Botany, Hazara University, Mansehra. Pakistan Abstract This paper communicates the ethno botanical uses of medicinal plants of Allai valley. Floristically the area is placed in Western Himalayan Province located on the western edge of Himalayas, dominated by Sino-Japanese type of vegetation. Aims of the study were to document the medicinal plant resources and their use patterns. A total of 172 taxa were reported as locally used for various medicinal purposes. Majority of the recipes are prepared in the form of decoction from freshly collected plant parts. Mostly a single species were used and mainly taken orally. They used medicinal plants for asthma, cough, tonic, abdominal pain, and expectorant, anthelmintic, carminative, on boils, snakebites, jaundice, diarrhea and dysentery etc. Among 172 medicinal plants 24 were used for curing livestock. Field observation showed that vegetation of the area was generally threatened due to urbanization, deforestation, over grazing, habitat fragmentation, unscientific extraction of natural vegetation, introduction of the exotic taxa and habitat loss. Measures for the conservation of plant resources especially medicinal plants of Allai valley are urgently needed. Keywords Western Himalayan, Medicinal Plants, Vegetation, Conservation, Allai Valley 1. Introduction Primitive people were restricted to use plant resources for food, medicine and shelter. With the passage of time their dependency on plants increased both directly and indirectly[1]. Wild plants have always been used for their potential of human being[2]. After refining and addition the authentic knowledge of medicinal plants passed on from one generation to another[3]. With the passage of time wild plants were cleared from their original habitat to replace the desired cultivated crops on large scale. This practice has always been affected by the availability of plants in their natural habitat and the way these resources are used by the local people are imperative. In developing countries medicinal plants provide a real alternative for primary health care system[1]. According to an estimate between 35,000 and 70,000 plant species are used in folk medicine worldwide[4]. Products from hundreds of species are being collected from remote forests and meadows and traded to international markets and consumed[5]. About 70 to 80% of the world population use traditional medicine for curing their illness and ailments[6]. The percentage of people using traditional medicine decreased in developed countries[7] due to the availability of health facilities. In Himalayan Mountains, certain areas are yet to be doc- * Corresponding author: (Faizul Haq) Published online at Copyright © 2012 Scientific & Academic Publishing. All Rights Reserved umented in the indigenous uses of medicinal plants[4]. One of such area is Allai valley western Himalaya. A detailed checklist of species diversity[8], traditional medicinal uses [1] and conservation study[9] of vascular flora of the adjacent Nandiar valley has been recently studied. Present study was there-fore carried out to document the traditional knowledge of medicinal plants of Allai valley and provide scientific basis for further research. Objectives of the study were: (i) To explore and document the medicinal plants re- sources of Allai valley. (ii) To collect information regarding to the plant uses, rate of consumption and rate of availability of medicinal plants. (iii) To recommend ways for sustainable utilization of the local resources and to provide basis for further research. 2. The Study Area The Allai Valley is located in the Western Himalayan Pakistan between 34° 44` and 34° 58` N and 72° 54` and 73° 15` E with a total area of 56081 ha. The Allai Valley is bounded by Kohistan valley in the north, by vast pasture meadows of Chaur in the east, by the Nandiar valley in the south and by the river Indus in the west[10]. The Allai Valley is generally rough and mountainous having variable slopes from gentle to precipitous including agricultural, wasteland, forest and alpine pasture and ranges in altitude from 545m at Thakot to 4690m at Sukaisar above mean sea level (GPS reading). The width of Allai valley varies from 22 Faizul Haq: The Ethno Botanical Uses of Medicinal Plants of Allai Valley, Western Himalaya Pakistan 0.5km to 5km and is accessible from Besham via Kond Saiyidan and Thakot located on Karakoram Highway[11]. Allai Khuwarr the main stream of the area to which all the small streams from different sub valleys joins at different locations, runs from East to West and joins River Indus near Besham at Kond Saiyidan. The nullahs, which feed the main stream, are Jabbar, Gantar, Batila and Pashto Khuwarrs[10]. 3. Materials and Methods The study was focused on Allai valley. Field trips to various parts of the selected area were undertaken from 1st May, 2009 to 30th Sep, 2011 to collect the information and specimens. Fieldwork was carried out in order to explore medicinal plant diversity. Plant specimens were collected along with extensive field’s notes including habit, habitat, life form, abundance, GPS value etc. For each plant, ethno botanical information was collected from people of different ages belonging to different sub localities. During the interviews, semi-structured questionnaire was developed as per modification from Lipp (1989) and Ali and Qaiser (2009)[12,4]. Field numbers were allotted to the specimens and field data. Scientific names, vernacular names, family and other relevant information were recorded properly. The specimens were identified through the flora of Pakistan[13-15]. 4. Results During present survey it was noted that various parts of 172 plant species belongs to 95 families are used for medicinal purpose. Among them fungi was represented by single-family Helvelaceae with one species, Pteridophytes by 3 families and 5 species, Gymnosperms by 3 families and 5 species and Angiosperms by 88 families and 161 species. Due to over exploitation of certain plant species such as Acer caesium Betula utilis, Cornus macrophylla, Dioscorea deltoidea, Pistacea integerrima, Paeonia emodi, Cedrus deodara, Skimmia laureola, Taxus wallichiana, Aesculus indica, Rhododendron arboreum, Podophyllum emodi, Viola canescens and Morchilla sp. by the local people, a drastic decrease has been observed in the population of these taxa in the wild. Unsustainable means of collection and ignorance of the people are the main causes of depletion of their population in the wild. These taxa deserve special attention on urgent basis, as their populations have alarmingly decreased in the wild. Conservation measures should be adapted immediately to protect these taxa from becoming extinct. Some of the medicinal plant species are used individually, while other is in mixtures. The recipes may be taken in the form of fresh plant material, powder, or in the form of Paste. The powder form may be taken in small quantity along with milk or water. The recipes are taken two to three times a day for 3 to 15 days depends on the nature and intensity of disease. The medicinal flora of the study area is given below: 1. Botanical Name: Abies pindrow Royle. Local name: Achal Family: Pinaceae Traditional uses: Decoction of the dried shoots and fresh leaves is used in cough, asthma and other chest infection. 2. Botanical Name: Acacia modesta Wall. Local name: Palosa Family: Mimosaceae Traditional uses: Dried gum is crushed, mixed in flour, sugar is added and then it is roasted in ghee and given to pregnant and lactating women as tonic. This is usually. It is also used for backache and weakness. 3. Botanical Name: Achillea mellefolium Linn. Local name: Qarqara and Dambrai. Family: Asteraceae Traditional uses: Whole plant is used as antipyretic, stimulant and tonic, diaphoretic and diuretic. Decoctions are used to treat inflammations, such as hemorrhoids, and headaches. Decoction of flowering tops is used in cold, influenza and allergic mucus problems. Flowers infusion used for upper respiratory phlegm and used externally as a wash for eczema. Fresh leaves are uses to clot nose bleeding. 4. Botanical Name: Achyranthus aspera Linn. Local name: Geshay Family: Amaranthaceae Traditional uses: The leaves extract are used for all skin problem in combination with sesame oil. Seed powdered are used for strengthen and whiting of teeth. The smoke of root and seed are used to relive cough and asthma. The powder of whole plant when mixed with sugar are used for relive of phlegm, breathlessness, continued cough, heaving etc. the leaves are also used in fever, piles and dog biting. Root extract are used in anemia, improving digestive system and constipation. 5. Botanical name: Aconitum heterophyllum Wall. Local name: Sarba Zaila Family: Ranunculaceae Traditional uses: The dried tuberous roots and rhizome are used along with mutton for enhancing growth and weight. 6. Botanical name: Aconitum chasmanthum Stapf ex Holmes Local Name: Zahar mora Family: Ranunculaceae Traditional uses: About 200 gram of fresh rhizome is fried in synthetic ghee and used before going to bed for body tonic. 7. Botanical Name: Acorus calamus Linn. Local name: Skhawaja Family: Acoraceae Traditional uses: The powder rhizome is used in diarrhea and dysentery. The rhizome is thought to be a powerful aphrodisiac, stimulant and mild tonic. Powder the dried root International Journal of Plant Research: 2012; 2(1): 21-34 23 and put this up the nose to cure a runny nose. Roasted fruits are grinded and are used as expectorants. Juice of leaves and roots are used as anthelmintic. It has wonderfully tonic powers of stimulating and normalizing the appetite. An infusion of the root can bring about an abortion whilst chewing the root alleviates toothache. 8. Botanical Name: Adiantum capillus veneris Linn. Local name: Babozea Family: Adiantaceae Traditional uses: The infusion of fronds is used as diuretic, expectorant, in coughs, headache and toothache. The entire plant is used for its cooling effects, for diabetes, in lowering blood pressure, and externally it is used for boils, eczema, and wounds. 9. Botanical Name: Adiantum incisum Forssk. Local name: Babozea Family: Adiantaceae Traditional uses: Fronds are used for skin diseases, cough and cold. 10. Botanical Name: Adiantum venustum D. Don. Local name: Babozea Family: Adiantaceae Traditional uses: The fronds are used as astringent, diuretic, expectorant and tonic. The plant is used in the treatment of headaches and scorpion stings. A paste made from rhizomes is used to treat cuts and wounds. The plant is also used in combination with other plant species as expectorant, hypothermic, diuretic and in stomachache. 11. Botanical Name: Aesculus indica (Wall. ex. Cambl.) Hook.f Local name: Joze and Banakor Family: Hippocastinaceae Traditional uses: Powered seeds are traditionally administered to livestock as anthelmintic. Powered seeds are also used for jaundice. Wood used for turned articles. 12. Botanical Name: Ajuga bracteosa Wall. ex Benth. Local name: Yakhabooti Family: Labiatae Traditional uses: Its fresh leaves decoction is used for curing jaundice, hypertension and very effective in sore throat. 13. Botanical Name: Albezia lebbeck J. L. Stewart. Local name: Srikh Family: Mimosaceae Traditional uses: Powdered bark is used in diarrhea and dysentery. The plant is also used as astringent, to treat boils, cough, to treat eye, flu, lung problems, tonic, and is used to treat abdominal tumors. 14. Botanical Name: Allium cepa L. Local name: Piaz Family: Alliaceae Traditional uses: The juice of fresh plant is mixed with honey and is used for treatment of flue, cholera and diabetes. The bulb is eaten and smelled along with sugar to avoid vomiting. 15. Botanical Name: Allium filidens Regel. Local name: Oogakay Family: Alliaceae Traditional uses: Fresh leaves are bitter in taste and are eaten raw or cooked along with other pot herbs for gastrointestinal disorders especially stomachache. 16. Botanical Name: Allium sativum L. Local name: Ooga Family: Alliaceae Traditional uses: The fruit is eaten with water at morning before breakfast, which reduces the high blood pressure. The fruit is ground and its juice is extracted and used for earache, reduction of high blood pressure and body pain. 17. Botanical Name: Amaranthus caudatus Linn. Local name: Chaleray Family: Amaranthaceae Traditional uses: The decoction of shoots and leaves are used in cough and asthma, diuretic, sores, piles and other pulmonary diseases. The root is boiled with honey and is used as laxative. 18. Botanical Name: Amaranthus viridus Linn. Local name: Ganhar Family: Amaranthaceae Traditional uses: It is eaten traditionally as a vegetable and the paste of leaves and roots are applied on boils and scorpion sting. 19. Botanical Name: Arisaema flavum (Forssk) Schott. Local name: Marjarai Family: Araceae Traditional uses: Fruit is eaten without chewing in cough and cold. 20. Botanical Name: Artemisia spp. Local name: Tarkha or Jau, Family: Asteraceae Traditional uses: The juice of leaves and inflorescence are used as anthelmintic. 21. Botanical Name: Asparagus officinalis Linn. Local name: Tindoray Family: Asparagaceae Traditional use: Young shoots are fed to livestock for promoting lactation. It is also used as a diuretic and laxative. 22. Botanical Name: Berberis lycium Royle. Local name: Kwaray Family: Berberidaceae Traditional uses: The powder bark of root is used as antiseptic, as remedy for swollen and sore eyes, broken bones, wounds, gonorrhea and curative piles. Leaves are given in jaundice. The plant is used for the treatment of internal injuries. An ointment made from root bark powder is mix with oil and applied on broken bones. The paste of powder bark is used in backache and as general body tonic. 23. Botanical Name: Bergenia ciliata Sternb. Local name: Gut panra Family: Saxifragaceae Traditional uses: Juice or powder of the whole plant is used to treat urinary troubles. The juice of the leaves is used as drops to relieve earaches. The rhizome is used in powder or paste form in diarrhea, stomach and duodenal ulcers, as 24 Faizul Haq: The Ethno Botanical Uses of Medicinal Plants of Allai Valley, Western Himalaya Pakistan tonic, helpful in relieving backache and muscular disorders. The root juice is used to treat coughs and colds, hemorrhoids, asthma and urinary problems. 24. Botanical Name: Betula utilis D. Don. Local name: Broj Family: Betulaceae Traditional uses: Birch bark soaked until moist in water, and then formed into a cast for a broken arm. Bark is used in various recipes and for amulet. 25. Botanical Name: Caesalpinia decapitala (Roth) Alston. Local name: Jara Family: Caesalpinaceae Traditional uses: Decoction of young shoots is used as analgesic and antipyretic. 26. Botanical Name: Calotropis procera (Wild.) R. Br. Local name: Spalmay Family: Asclepiadaceae Traditional uses: Leaves are applied as poultice on dog bitten wounds. An infusion of bark powder is used in the treatment and cure of leprosy. Bark and wood stimulate lactation in cattle. Roots are applied for snakebite. 27. Botanical Name: Caltha alba Local name: Makan path Family: Ranunculaceae Traditional uses: The plant is used to stop pain and cramps, for menstrual disorders, bronchial inflammation, jaundice, and liver disorders. Flowering shoots is used as a laxative and diuretic. It is also used for cleaning skin lesions and sores. 28. Botanical Name: Cannabis sativa Linn. Local name: Bhang Family: Canabinaceae Traditional uses: The decoction of flowering tops is used as sedative, anodyne and narcotic. 29. Botanical Name: Cedrella serrata Royle Local name: Meem Family: Meliaceae Traditional uses: Whole plant is considered as poisonous. The leaf, stem and root bark is used for curing roundworms. Leaves decoction is excellent hair wash. The juice is administrated in diabetes and it also produces body coldness. 30. Botanical Name: Cedrus deodara Roxb. ex Lamb. Local name: Ranzrah Family: Pinaceae Traditional uses: A decoction of the wood is used in the treatment of fevers, flatulence, pulmonary and urinary disorders, rheumatism, piles, kidney stones and diabetes. It has been used as an antidote to snake bites. Resin is used externally to treat skin diseases and injuries to joints. Leaves are used in the treatment of tuberculosis. The extract of the wood (Ranzrah) is administrated to the livestock as anthelmintic. It is a valuable timber, but a poor fuel, producing a lot of smoke when it burns. 31. Botanical Name: Celtis australis Linn. Local name: Batkar Family: Ulmaceae Traditional uses: A decoction of both leaves and fruit is used in the treatment of amenorrhea, heavy menstrual and inter-menstrual bleeding, astringent, lenitive and stomachic and colic. The decoction is also used in the treatment of diarrhea, dysentery and peptic ulcers. Decoction from bark is administrated as anti-allergic. 32. Botanical Name: Cephalanthera longifolia (L) Fritsch. Family: Orchidaceae Traditional uses: The rhizome is considered as promoting lactation in livestock, and is given along with Maize flour. 33. Botanical Name: Chenopodium album Linn. Local name: Bathu Family: Chenopodiaceae Traditional uses: This plant is said to be laxative, and uses in hepatic disorder and enlarge spleen. Whole plant is used in abdominal pains and as diuretic. 34. Botanical Name: Cichorium intybus Linn. Local name: Kasni Family: Asteraceae Traditional uses: The whole plant is taken internally for loss of appetite, jaundice, gallstones, gout and rheumatism. The leaves are used as compresses to be applied externally to ease skin inflammations and swellings. The roots are washed, boiled and filtrate is kept for whole night in open sky and then used for abdominal pain. 35. Botanical Name: Cissampelos pareira Linn. Local name: Gorisum Family: Menispermaceae Traditional Uses: It is mainly used for treating women’s diseases as a cure for menstrual problems, hormonal imbalance, and to ease childbirth, postpartum pain, prevent miscarriage, and control uterine hemorrhages, hormonal acne and premenstrual syndrome. A decoction of the whole vine is taken by women for 2 months before and throughout pregnancy and again three months after delivery. The plant is also used in dysentery, piles, dropsy and to stop uterine haemorrhages. A decoction of the leaf and stem is used as an oral analgesic. The toasted seeds are brewed into a tea for treatment of internal haemorrhages and external bleeding. The leaves extract are administrated to livestock for diarrhea treatment. 36. Botanical Name: Clematis grata Wall. Local name: Chinjanoly Family: Ranunculaceae Traditional uses: The shoots extracts is considered as antimycotic, applied to ring worm and baldness. 37. Botanical Name: Clematis montana Buch. Local name: Chinjanoly Family: Ranunculaceae Traditional uses: The decoction of flowers is used in cough. 38. Botanical Name: Colchicum luteum Baker. Local name: Suranjan Family: Colchicaceae Traditional uses: Fresh corm are mixed with eggs and fried in Ghee and given to aged people for curing joints pain. International Journal of Plant Research: 2012; 2(1): 21-34 25 39. Botanical Name: Convolvulus arvensis Linn. Local name: Ellay Family: Convolvulaceae Traditional uses: Tea made from leaves used as a wash on spider bites. Tea ingested to reduce profuse menstruation. Flower tea used to reduce fever and heal wounds. Roots have strong emetic effects. The roots are dried, powdered and used as purgative and is also used as diuretic. Whole plant is used as laxative. 40. Botanical Name: Corydalis stewartii Fedde. Local name: Mamera Family: Fumariaceae Traditional uses: Floral drops are used for curing eye diseases. 41. Botanical Name: Cotinus coggyria Scop. Local name: Chamyarlakhta or Miswakay Family: Anacardiaceae Traditional uses: Leaves are given to livestock against liver fluke. The yellow wood is used as febrifuge and for eye ailments. 42. Botanical Name: Cotoneaster microphylla Wall. ex Lindl. Local name: Kharawa Family: Rosaceae Traditional uses: Fruit are used as expectorant and astringent, also effective in stomachache. 43. Botanical Name: Cotoneaster nummalaria Fish. Local name: Mamana Family: Rosaceae Traditional uses: Fruit is edible and are used as astringent. 44. Botanical Name: Crataegus songarica C. Koch. Local name: Batsinga Family: Rosaceae Traditional uses: Fruits are edible and considered as cardio tonic. 45. Botanical Name: Cuscuta gigantea Griff. Local name: Akasbail Family: Cuscutaceae Traditional uses: Juice of plant is used as anti poisonous agent. 46. Botanical Name: Cynodon dactylon Linn. Local name: Kabal Family: Poaceae Traditional uses: Cynodon dactylon have many medicinal properties including antimicrobial and antiviral properties, as well as treatment of urinary tract infections and dysentery. Fresh leaves are applied on cuts and bleeding wounds, bleeding piles, diuretic, antipyretic and diarrhea. 47. Botanical Name: Dalbergia sisso Roxb. Local name: Shawa Family: Papilionaceae Traditional uses: Decoction of leaves is bitter, stimulant, used in gonorrhea. Root is astringent. Wood is used as alterative, useful in leprosy, boils and to stop vomiting. 48. Botanical Name: Daphne oloides Schreb. Local name: Kutilal Family: Thymalaceae Traditional uses: Seeds and roots are used as anthalmintic. Fruit when directly eaten, cause nausea and vomiting. An infusion of the bark and leaves are used in the treatment of cutaneous affections. 49. Botanical Name: Daphne papyracea Wallich .ex Steud. Local name: Jangali Kutilal Family: Thymalaceae Traditional uses: The juice of the leaves is used to kill the ectoparasites of livestock. 50. Botanical Name: Datura innoxia Miller. Local name: Baturai Family: Solanaceae Traditional uses: Juice of the leaves is applied to the cutaneous affection of the head. Seeds are employed in fever. 51. Botanical Name: Datura stramonium Linn. Local name: Datura Family: Solanaceae Traditional uses: All parts of Datura plants contain poison and may be fatal if ingested by humans or animals, including livestock and pets. Leaves are applied for the softening of the boils. Juice of the flower is used in earache. 52. Botanical Name: Debregessia salicifolia (D. Don.) Rendle. Local name: Ajlai Family: Urticaceae Traditional uses: Leaves are antiseptic also used for boils and other swellings. 53. Botanical Name: Delphinum vestitum Wall.ex Royle Family: Ranunculaceae Traditional uses: The juice of the flower is used as hair tonic. 54. Botanical Name: Descurainia sophia (L.) Webb. and Berth. Local name: Khoob kalan Family: Brassicaceae Traditional uses: A poultice of the plant has been used to ease the pain of toothache. The juice of the plant is used in the treatment of chronic coughs, hoarseness and ulcerated sore throats. A strong decoction of the plant is used in the treatment of asthma. The flowers and the leaves are astringent. The seed is considered to be cardiotonic, demulcent, diuretic, expectorant, febrifuge, laxative, restorative and tonic. A poultice of the ground up seeds has been used on burns and sores. 55. Botanical Name: Desmodium elegans D. C. Local name: Jamkat Family: Papilionaceae Traditional uses: The powder roots are used in chronic fever, cough, vomiting, asthma, and in snakebite. The juice of the root is used in the treatment of cholera. 56. Botanical Name: Deutzia staminea R. Br .ex Wall. Local name: Boritus Family: Philadelphaceae Traditional uses: Whole plant Remove the fleas from houses. 26 Faizul Haq: The Ethno Botanical Uses of Medicinal Plants of Allai Valley, Western Himalaya Pakistan 57. Botanical Name: Dioscorea deltoidea Wall. Local name: Kanis zela Family: Dioscoreaceae Traditional uses: The powder tuber is mixed with pow- dered root of Berberis lycium and is used for the treatment of jaundice. The juice is applied in hair to kill lice. Locally whole plant is crushed and used to kill fishes. 58. Botanical Name: Diospyros lotus Linn. Local name: Tor Amlook Family: Ebenaceae Traditional uses: Fruits are carminative, purgative, anti febrile and causes flatulence. Local people boil the fruit in milk and take it for curing of constipation and dysentery. 59. Botanical Name: Dodonaea vescosa (L.) Jacq. Local name: Ghwarasky Family: Sapindaceae Traditional uses: Stem and leaf infusions are used to treat sore throats and fever; root infusions to treat colds; the seeds mixed with honey is used to treat malaria, the stem are used as fumigants to treat rheumatism. The leaves are used to relive itching, fevers, swelling, aches and as antispasmodic. Leaves and roots are used as painkiller to soothe toothaches. 60. Botanical Name: Dryopteris jaxtapostia Chirst. Local name: Kuanjay Family: Dryopteridaceae Traditional uses: Fronds enhance digestion. 61. Botanical Name: Elaegnus umbellata Thunb. Local name: Ghanamranga Family: Elagnaceae Traditional uses: Flowers and seeds are stimulant and astringent. Seed oil is used in pulmonary infections. 62. Botanical Name: Equisetum arvense Linn. Local name: Bandaky Family: Equisetaceae Traditional uses: The extract of the whole plant is used in jaundice. The herb is use as diuretic. Decoction of the fronds is used in rheumatism. 63. Botanical Name: Euphorbia indica Lam. Local name: Jangali Spalmai Family: Euphorbiaceae Traditional uses: The milky juice is used against ringworm disease. 64. Botanical Name: Euphorbia wallichii Hook. f. Local name: Hirvi Family: Euphorbiaceae Traditional uses: It is poisonous, highly laxative causes sever diarrhea and dysentery. Used in skin diseases. 65. Botanical Name: Ferula sp. Local name: Hing Family: Umbelliferae Traditional uses: The decoction is used in cough, asthma, toothache, gastric problems and anti-constipation. 66. Botanical Name: Ficus carica Forsk. Local name: Inzar Family: Moraceae Traditional uses: The roots are used in treatment of ring- worms. Its fruits have antipyretic, demulcent, purgative, aphrodisiac properties and have shown to be useful in inflammations and paralysis. The leaves are used in the treatment of jaundice. The latex is placed on the spot in which prickle has hidden; the prickle is easily drawn out from the outer skin of the body. 67. Botanical Name: Ficus palmata Forsk. Local name: Inzar Family: Moraceae Traditional uses: The fruit is demulcent, emollient, laxative and poultice. It is used as a part of the diet in the treatment of constipation and diseases of the lungs and bladder. The latex of the plant is used to take out spines lodged deeply in the flesh. 68. Botanical Name: Ficus racemosa Linn. Local name: Oormal Family: Moraceae Traditional uses: Leaves infusion is astringent. Fruits are used as carminative and astringent. The decoction of leaves is salutary in washing the wounds for better cleansing and healing. The decoction of bark and latex is used in diarrhea and dysentery. In diabetes, the ripe fruit, root and bark decoction is beneficial. 69. Botanical Name: Foeniculum vulgare Miller. Local name: Saunf Family: Apiaceae Traditional uses: Fruits are carminative, purgative, and aromatic, used in stomach disorders and in fever. The decoction of fennel is employed as a carminative, relax the intestines and reduce bloating caused by digestive disorders. Fennel seeds are eaten raw or with sugar to improve eyesight. Extracts of fennel seed is used in the treatment of glaucoma in animal. 70. Botanical Name: Fragaria nubicola Lindl. ex Lac. Local name: Budhi maiwa Family: Rosaceae Traditional uses: Fruit is carminative. Leaves and fruits are mixed with leaves of Berberis lycium and used in cure of stomach ulcers, also used as antiseptic on the wound externally. 71. Botanical Name: Fumaria indica (Husskin) H. N. Local name: Papra Family: Fumariaceae Traditional uses: It is used as alterative, diuretic, anthelmintic and also used in diabetes. Decoction of whole plant is used in constipation. 72. Botanical Name: Gallium aparine Linn. Local name: Cochna Family: Rubiaceae Traditional uses: Leaves are used in jaundice. The plant is also used traditionally to treat skin diseases. 73. Botanical Name: Gentianodes pedicellata D. Don. Local name: Nilkant Family: Gentianaceae Traditional uses: Decoction of root is used for urinary tract infections, also used for stomachic. 74. Botanical Name: Geranium wallichianum D.Don. International Journal of Plant Research: 2012; 2(1): 21-34 27 Local name: Ratanjot Family: Geraniaceae Traditional uses: The plant has astringent properties. A paste of the plant is used as a poultice to relieve joint pains. Powdered root is mixed with sugar and milk and used in backache and is also used in strengthening of the body muscles and bones. 75. Botanical Name: Grewia optiva Drum. ex Burret. Local name: Pastawonay Family: Tiliaceae Traditional uses: Leaves and young shoots are fed to cattle, sheep and goats for increasing milk yield and also used as astringent. 76. Botanical Name: Gymnosporia royleana Wall.ex Lawson. Local name: Sorazghay Family: Celastraceae Traditional uses: The fruit is placed in mouth to relive toothache. 77. Botanical Name: Hedra nepalensis K. Koch. Local name: Albomor Family: Araliaceae Traditional uses: The leaves and berries are said to be cathartic, diaphoretic and stimulant. A decoction of the plant is used to treat skin disease. Leaves are used in diabetes. Juice of the leaves is used for the removal of leeches from the nose of livestock. 78. Botanical Name: Heliotropium cabulicum Bunge. Local name: Geshay Family: Boraginaceae Traditional uses: Whole plant is applied on boils and swellings. 79. Botanical Name: Hypericum perforatum Linn. Local name: Shenchai Family: Guttiferae Traditional uses: Decoction is used in cold and in cough. It is also used as carminative and stimulant. 80. Botanical Name: Impatiens bicolor Royle. Local name: Bantil Family: Balsaminaceae Traditional uses: The fruits are used as diuretic, tonic and cooling effect. 81. Botanical Name: Indigofera hetarentha Wall. ex Brand. Local name: Ghoreja Family: Papilionaceae Traditional uses: Powdered roots are used as remedy for headache and chest pain. 82. Botanical Name: Inula royleana D.C. Local name: Kut Family: Asteraceae Traditional uses: Plant is considered to be poisonous. Roots are used to control high blood pressure. 83. Botanical Name: Isodon rugosus Linn. Local name: Sperkay Family: Labiatae Traditional uses: The dried leaves are considered useful for toothache. 84. Botanical Name: Jasminum humile Linn. Local name: Konkoni Family: Oleaceae Traditional uses: A paste made from the flowers is considered effective in the treatment of intestinal problems. The juice of the root is used in the treatment of ringworm. 85. Botanical Name: Jasminum officinale Linn. Local name: Chamba Family: Oleaceae Traditional uses: The leaf juice is applied to corns and ear discharges. The leaves are used as an analgesic and febrifuge. The root is used in the treatment of ringworm. The flowers are aphrodisiac, antiseptic, antispasmodic, galactogogue and tonic. Decoction of leaves and flowers are given to infants during fever and as blood purifier. It is also given to livestock during cough and fever and also to increase milk production. 86. Botanical Name: Juglans regia Linn. Local name: Ghuz Family: Juglandaceae Traditional uses: The leaves of the tree are considered to be anti-inflammatory, anthelmintic, alterative, depurative, astringent and also used in cure of various skin diseases. A broth is prepared from the male inflorescence and used for cure of vertigo and coughs. The roots and bark have astringent, anthelmintic and detergent properties. The fruit is also used to cure rheumatism. Bark is finely powdered and used to prevent bleeding gums and as a mouth rinse. 87. Botanical Name: Juniperus communis Brand. Local name: Gogar Family: Cupressaceae Traditional uses: The smoke of leaves is used to cures the effect evil eyes. The oil obtained from berries are used as diuretic, antiseptic, aromatic, stomachic, antirheumatic, cystitis, flatulence, blood tonic and colic. 88. Botanical Name: Justicia adhatoda Linn. Local name: Baiker Family: Acanthaceae Traditional uses: The roots and leaves either in the form of decoction and powder is used in asthma, bronchitis, cough, rheumatism, antispasmodic and expectorant. 89. Botanical Name: Lathyrus aphaca Linn. Local name: Kokorbang Family: Papilionaceae Traditional uses: Ripe seeds are narcotic, also used for wound healing. Dried roots are mixed with wheat flour is administrated orally to livestock for various body infections. 90. Botanical Name: Launea procumbens Roxb. Local name: Shauda pai Family: Asteraceae Traditional uses: Powdered made from the leaves is mixed with sugar and used to enhance lactation. 91. Botanical Name: Lepidium sativum L. Local name: Alum Family: Brassicaceae 28 Faizul Haq: The Ethno Botanical Uses of Medicinal Plants of Allai Valley, Western Himalaya Pakistan Traditional uses: Ten to fifteen dried fruits of the plant are mixed in one glass of milk and butter, boiled, partly cooled and is taken two times a day for two to five days for cholera and abdominal pain. 92. Botanical Name: Mallotus philippensis (Lam) Muell. Local name: Kambela Family: Euphorbiaceae Traditional uses: Glands and hairs on the fruits are used as anthelmintic. Bark is astringent and diuretic. Leaves are bitter, cooling and appetizer. 93. Botanical Name: Malva neglecta Wall. Local name: Banerak Family: Malvaceae Traditional uses: The roots are boiled and mixed with the seeds of Lepidium sativum and used as purgative for young cattle. The leaves and flowers are used as demulcent, as a poultice for bruise, inflammations, insect bites etc, or taken internally in the treatment of respiratory system diseases or inflammation of the digestive or urinary systems. 94. Botanical Name: Marrubium vulgare Linn. Local name: Kharboti Family: Labiatae Traditional uses: Decoction is made from the young leaves and is used against cough. Sugar is added for enhancing flavor. 95. Botanical Name: Melia azedarach Linn. Local name: Bikyana Family: Meliaceae Traditional uses: Decoction of leaves is used in hysteria. Seeds are used in rheumatism and hypertension. 96. Botanical Name: Mentha longifolia (L.) Huds. Local name: Villanay Family: Labiatae Traditional uses: Powdered leaves are used as carminative, in diarrhea, dysentery and stomachache. The plant is also used for its antiseptic properties and its beneficial effect on the digestion. The leaves and flowering stems are antispasmodic, carminative and stimulant. A tea made from the leaves has traditionally been used in the treatment of fevers, headaches, digestive disorders and various minor ailments. 97. Botanical Name: Mentha spicata Linn. Local name: Podina Family: Labiatae Traditional uses: It is carminative and is used in diarrhea, dysentery and stomachache. Leaves are used for salad, spice etc. 98. Botanical Name: Micromeria biflora (Buchi. Ham. ex D. Don) Benth. Local name: Yakha booti Family: Labiatae Traditional uses: A paste of the root is pressed between the jaws to treat toothache. The plant is rubbed and the aroma inhaled to treat nose bleeds. A paste of the plant is used as a poultice to treat wounds. The juice of the plant is taken internally and also inhaled in the treatment of sinusitis. The stem and the leaves of the plant are plucked, chewed and the juice is swallowed to relive abdominal pain. 99. Botanical Name: Mirabalis jalpa Linn. Local name: Gule badam Family: Nyctaginaceae Traditional uses: A hot poultice of leaves is used to mature and resolve boils. Leaf juice is used for cleaning and healing wounds. A paste of the root is applied as a poultice to treat scabies and muscular swellings. The powdered root, mixed with corn flour (Zea mays) is baked and used in the treatment of menstrual disorders. 100. Botanical Name: Momordica charantia L.. Local name: Karela Family: Cucurbetaceae Traditional uses: Fruit juice is used for the treatment of diabetes also used in Jaundice. 101. Botanical Name: Morchella spp. Linn. Local name: Gochai Family: Helvelaceae Traditional uses: Whole plant is used as general body tonic. 102. Botanical Name: Morus alba Linn. Local name: Spin toot Family: Moraceae Traditional uses: The leaf extract are used against snake bite, edema, hemorrhage and myonecrotic. The bark is used to treat cough, wheezing, edema, promote urination, fever, and headache, red dry and sore eyes. 103. Botanical Name: Morus nigra Linn. Local name: Tor toot Family: Moraceae Traditional uses: Fruit are laxative, cooling and aromatic. Leaves decoction is used for cleaning throat. Root is anthelmintic and astringent. 104. Botanical Name: Myrsine africana L. Local name: Mangaya / Maru rang Family: Myrsinaceae Traditional uses: The powdered fruit is used as anthelmintic, especially in the treatment of tape worm. A decoction of the leaves is used as blood purifier. The powdered fruit is mixed and is used in the treatment of cough. 105. Botanical Name: Myrtus communis Linn. Local name: Manoo Family: Myrtaceae Traditional uses: Leaves are boiled in water with sugar (ghur), and its decoction is used for abdominal pain and diarrhea. The plant is taken internally in the treatment of urinary infections, digestive problems, vaginal discharge, bronchial congestion, sinusitis and dry coughs. 106. Botanical Name: Narcissus tazetta Linn. Local name: Gul-e-Nargis Family: Amaryllidaceae Traditional uses: It is used in the treatment of boils and mastitis. The root is emetic. It is used to relieve headaches. The root is applied as poultice to abscesses, boils and other skin complaints. 107. Botanical Name: Nerium indicum Mill. Local name: Ganderay International Journal of Plant Research: 2012; 2(1): 21-34 29 Family: Apocynaceae Traditional uses: Every part of the plant is poisonous. The whole plant is used with care. The decoction of the flowers is used as a general insecticide to kill lice and other insects. The powdered bark, mixed with castor oil, can be applied over skin eruptions. The leaves and bark are used for snake bites and as an insecticide. 108. Botanical Name: Olea ferrugenea Ryole. Local name: Khona Family: Oleaceae Traditional uses: Leaves are astringent, antiseptic and diuretic. Locally the leaves are used in soar throat and toothache. 109. Botanical Name: Onosma echioides Family: Boraginaceae Traditional uses: The leaves are alterative. The powder of plant is given to children as purgative. The flowers are used as a cordial and stimulant in the treatment of rheumatism and palpitations of the heart. The root is used to threat skin eruptions. 110. Botanical Name: Opuntia dilleni Haw. Local Name: Zaqoom Family: Cactaceae Traditional uses: Phylloclade’s poultice is used for extracting guinea worms. Fruits are edible, demulcent and expectorant. The ripe fruits juice is useful remedy for asthma and whooping cough. 111. Botanical Name: Origanum vulgare Linn. Local name: Ishpain Family: Labiatae Traditional uses: Shoot is chewed for toothache. It is also used as flavoring agent. 112. Botanical Name: Otostegia limbata (Benth.) Boiss. Local name: Pishkand Family: Labiatae Traditional uses: Dried powdered plant is used in jaundice. An aqueous extract of the herb is locally used for treatment of eye inflammations and infections. The plant is also used as remedy for hypertension. 113. Botanical Name: Oxalis corniculata Linn. Local name: Zmakay tarookay Family: Oxalidaceae Traditional uses: Leaves are anti ascorbic, cooling and used in stomach disorder. The plant is mixed with maize flour and used for diarrhea treatment in livestock. 114. Botanical Name: Paeonia emodi Wall. ex Hook. f. Local name: Mamekh Family: Paeoniaceae Traditional uses: The infusion of dried flower is used in diarrhea. Rhizome is used to increase milk production in livestock, also used as tonic. 115. Botanical Name: Persicaria stagnina Buch - Ham. ex Meisn. Local name: Pulpulak Family: Polygonaceae Traditional uses: Root is cooling and astringent. Seed is used in colic. The plant is also locally used for killing fish- es. 116. Botanical Name: Pinus roxburghii Sargent. Local name: Nakhtar Family: Pinaceae Traditional uses: Resin of bark (jaula) is stimulant used in ulcer, skin diseases, snakebites and scorpion stings. It is used for treatment of skin complaints, wounds, sores, burns and boils. 117. Botanical Name: Pistacea integerrima J. L. Stewart. Local name: Shnai Family: Anacardaceae Traditional uses: Fruits and galls extract are used as tonic and expectorant. The plant is used in the treatment of coughs, phthisis, asthma and dysentery. The decoction of leaves is used for body cooling and hepatitis. 118. Botanical Name: Plantago lanceolata Linn. Local name: Chamchi patar Family: Plantaginaceae Traditional uses: Powdered leaves are used as antiseptic. The paste of leaves is used for all types of sores on the skin, cuts, bites and various inflammations. Decoction of seeds is used for the treatment of diarrhoea and dysentery and for bleeding in the mouth or other mucous membranes. 119. Botanical Name: Plantago major Aitch. Local name: Jabai Family: Plantaginaceae Traditional uses: It is used as astringent, tonic, stimulant, antiseptic, also used in stomach disorders, in fever and dysentery. A decoction of the roots is used in the treatment of diarrhea, dysentery, gastritis, bronchitis, catarrh, sinusitis, coughs, asthma and hay fever. 120. Botanical Name: Platanus orientalis Linn. Local name: Chinar Family: Plantanaceae Traditional uses: Bark is useful remedy in diarrhea and dysentery. Fresh leaves bruised and applied to the eye in ophthalmic diseases. 121. Botanical Name: Podophyllum emodi Wall. ex Royle. Local name: Bankakri Family: Podophyllaceae Traditional uses: Rhizome and root are hepatic stimulant, purgative and emetic. Flower is used for fever and body pain. Rhizome is given to cattle for fever and milk production. 122. Botanical Name: Poligonatum verticelatum (Linn.) All. Local name: Norealam Family: Liliaceae Traditional uses: Rhizome is mixed with sugar and used for treatment of joint pain, also used as aphrodisiac. The decoction of dried rhizome is administrated to livestock for removal of placenta. 123. Botanical Name: Polygonum amplexicaule D. Don. Local name: Masloon Family: Polygonaceae Traditional uses: Rhizome is crushed and mixed with milk to soften mammary gland of livestock and also given 30 Faizul Haq: The Ethno Botanical Uses of Medicinal Plants of Allai Valley, Western Himalaya Pakistan in diarrhea. 124. Botanical Name: Populus alba Linn. Local name: Bensa, Aspai and Shafeda Family: Salicaceae Traditional uses: The juice of fresh leaves is given to livestock for Mouth and Foot diseases. The branches are supposed to control diseases of rice crop. 125. Botanical Name: Portulaca oleracea Linn. Local name: Warkhary Family: Portulaceae Traditional uses: It is used as a remedy for constipation and inflammation of the urinary system. Whole plant is mixed with Chenopodium and used in treatments for internal parasites. The fresh herb is applied topically to relieve sores and insect or snake bites on the skin. 126.Botanical Name: Primula denticulata Smith. Local name: Asal Mamera Family: Primulaceae Traditional uses: Flowers are used as ophthalmic and as hair tonic. 127. Botanical Name: Prunus domestica L. Local name: Alucha Family: Rosaceae Traditional uses: It is used as laxative and flavoring agent. Fruit pulp is used in chutneys. 128. Botanical Name: Prunus padus Hook.f. Local name: Barith Family: Rosaceae Traditional uses: Fruits is used as narcotic. The bark is mildly anodyne, diuretic, febrifuge and sedative. An infusion is used in the treatment of colds. 129.Botanical name: Prunus persica (L.) Batsch Local name: Shalthalo Family: Rosaceae Traditional uses: The dried fruits and ginger are crushed into powder. This powder is mixed with honey and eaten for body cooling and diabetes. The resin is boiled in water, cool down and used for earache and deafness. 130.Botanical Name: Pteris cretica Linn. Local name: Qinchi panra Family: Pteridaceae Traditional uses: The whole plant is given to livestock during cough. 131. Botanical Name: Punica granatum Linn. Local name: Narsaway Family: Punicaceae Traditional uses: A decoction of seed is used to treat syphilis. Its juice of seeds is used to treat jaundice and diarrhea. Juice of the fruit is used to treat jaundice and diarrhea. The rind of the fruit is ground in water and drunk every morning by diabetics. The fruit together with the juice of Cynodon dactylon leaves is used for runny noses and colds. The juice of the flowers is used to treat nose bleeds. The fruit pulp and the seed are a stomachic. The root and stem bark have astringent and anthelmintic properties. 132. Botanical Name: Pyrus pashia Buch.-Ham.ex D.Don. Local name: Tangai Family: Rosaceae Traditional uses: Juice of fruits is used for eyes infections in livestock. The juice of the ripe fruit is used in the treatment of diarrhea. 133. Botanical Name: Quercus dilatata Lindle. ex Royle. Local name: Tor banj Family: Fagaceae Traditional uses: Powdered fruit are used to treat gonorrhea and urinary diseases. It is also astringent and diuretic, used in diarrhea, indigestion and asthma. 134. Botanical Name: Quercus incana Roxb. Local name: Spin banj Family: Fagaceae Traditional uses: Fruits is used as astringent, diuretic, diarrhea and asthma. 135. Botanical Name: Rhododendron arboreum Smith. Local name: Gulamair Family: Ericaceae Traditional uses: Leaves paste is applied to the forehead in the treatment of headaches. The juice of the bark is used in the treatment of coughs, diarrhoea and dysentery and Diabetes, piles, Jaundice, liver disorder and worms. It is also used in skin diseases. Flower petals are used as tonic. 136. Botanical Name: Rhus javanica Linn. Local name: Tetray Family: Anacardiaceae Traditional uses: The fruits are carminative and are recommended in colic. 137. Botanical Name: Ricinus communis Linn. Local name: Arind Family: Euphorbiaceae Traditional uses: Leaves are emetic, narcotic and purgative. Leaves poultice is applied to swellings. Seed oil is purgative. 138. Botanical Name: Rosa moschata J. Herm. Local name: Qurach Family: Rosaceae Traditional uses: Decoction of flowers is used in stomach disorder. The fruit is used for the treatment of cancer. The leaves and flowers are used in the treatment of bilious affections, burning of the skin and eye diseases. 139. Botanical Name: Rubus ellipticus Smith. Local name: Goraj Family: Rosaceae Traditional uses: The juice and decoction of the root is used in the treatment of fever, gastric troubles, diarrhea and dysentery. A paste of the roots is applied externally to wounds. Both the root and young leaves are used in colic. The juice of the fruit is used in the treatment of fever, colic, cough and sore throat. 140. Botanical Name: Rubus fructicosus Hook .f. Local name: Baganra Family: Rosaceae Traditional uses: Leaves are used for the treatment of diarrhea, cough and fever. Fruit are used as carminative. The chewing of the leaves is used for bleeding gums. The fruit and juice are taken for anemia. The decoction or powder of

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