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Species diversity and ethnobotanical classification of the flora of the Alai River Valley in batagram, Pakistan

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https://www.eduzhai.net International Journal of Plant Research 2012, 2(4): 111-123 DOI: 10.5923/j.plant.20120204.03 Species Diversity and Ethno Botanical Classes of the Flora of Allai Valley District Battagram Pakistan Faizul Haq1,*, Habib Ahmad2, Rahat Ullah3, Zafar Iqbal1 1Department of Botany, Hazara University, M ansehra Pakistan (GDC Battagram) 2Department of Genetics, Hazara University, M ansehra Pakistan 3Department of Zoology, Hazara University, M ansehra Pakistan Abstract During present study the species diversity of the vascular flora in various climat ic and vegetational zones of Allai valley was evaluated. An ethno-botanical survey was carried out for collecting in formation regard ing the species diversity and traditional uses of the plants in different sub localities of Allai valley. The aim o f the study was to document plant resources, usage and conservation issues of the selected plants. Field observations showed that the visible threats to the vegetation of the study area was the trend to urbanizat ion, deforestation, over grazing, overexp loitation, introduction of exotic taxa and loss of habitat. A total of 415 species of vascular plants, belonging to 111 families were co llected and identified fro m A llai Valley. These include 246 herbs, 75 shrubs, 68 trees, 06 climbing shrubs, 18 climbers and 03 epiphytes. Based on local uses, there were 185 medicinal plants, 21 were poisonous, 261 were fodder species, 126 were fuel wood species, 37 were t imber yielding plants, 43 were thatching and sheltering plants, 31 were hedge plants, 73 were wild ornamental, 100 were weeds, 48 species yield edible fruits and seeds, 43 were used as vegetable and pot herb. The critically endangered species include; Acer caesium, Betula utilis, Dioscorea deltoidea, Taxus wallichiana and Ulmus wallichiana. Measures for the conservation of plant resources of Allai Valley are urgently needed. Keywords Diversity, Ethnobotanical Classes, Threats, Conservation, Allai Va lley 1. Introduction Biodiversity consists of species diversity, genetic diversity, ecosystem diversity and the diversity of ecological processes[1],[2]. Species diversity may be analyzed as a coexistence of different life objects within taxa and in a territory[3]. Globally important biological diversity territories are called hot spot territories. One half of all plant species in the planet gro w in 34 hot spots, but not yet destroyed vegetation of these territories occupies only 2.3 % of the Earth[4]. The total species diversity of vascular plants on the earth is estimated between 310,000 to 420,000[5]. World wide between 35,000 and 70,000 med icinal plants provide a real alternative for primary health care system[6]. Due to mult iple eco logical regions, diverse climatic and soil conditions more than 6000 species of higher plants is reported to exist in Pakistan (Haq et al 2010), including 2000 medicinal p lant species[7]. Pakistan is under tremendous ecological stress due to its population exp losion, unplanned urbanization, defo restation and overexp loitation of natural resources[8]. Pakistan with * Corresponding author: faizulhaq80@yahoo.com (Faizul Haq) Published online at https://www.eduzhai.net Copyright © 2012 Scientific & Academic Publishing. All Rights Reserved its less than 4 % natural forests resources is rapidly declining at a rate of 4 – 6 % per year[9], results in a decline in species and genetic diversity of population[10]. The Allai Valley is located in the Western Himalayan Province of District Battagram between 34° 44` and 34° 58` N and 72° 54` and 73° 15` E with a total area of 56081 ha including agricultural, wasteland, forest and alpine range. The width of Allai valley varies fro m 0.5 km to 5 km and is accessible fro m Besham v ia Kond Saiy idan and Thakot located on Karakoram Highway[1],[11]. The Allai Valley is bounded by Kohistan valley in the north, by vast pasture meadows of Chaur in the east, by the Nandiar valley in the south and by the river Indus in the west. The Allai Valley is generally rough and mountainous having variable slopes fro m gentle to precipitous and ranges in alt itude fro m 545m at Thakot to 4690m above mean sea level at Sukaisar (GPS reading). Allai Khuwarr the main stream of the area to which all the small streams fro m different sub valleys jo ins at different locations, runs fro m East to West and joins River Indus near Besham at Kond Saiyidan. The nullahs, wh ich feed the main stream, are Jabbar, Gantar, Bat ila and Pashto Khuwarrs. The present study was main ly aimed: To e exp lore the species diversity of the flora of Allai valley. To document plant uses, rate of consumption and availability profile of selected plants. 112 Faizul Haq et al.: Species Diversity and Ethno Botanical Classes of the Flora of Allai Valley District Battagram Pakistan To reco mmend ways for sustainable utilizat ion of the local resources, for introducing effective conservation measures in the area. 2. Materials and Methods Field trips to various parts of the selected area of Allai Valley were undertaken fro m 1st Sep 2009 to 30th Aug 2011 to collect the informat ion and specimens to be used for future reference. The segments which were visited repeatedly include Banna, Biari, Batila, Barkandorkai, Chaur, Gangwal, Gantar, Jabar, Kanai, Pashto, Rashung, Sakargah and Thakot. The informations were collected fro m people o f different ages belonging to different sub localities. The identificat ion was done with the help of Flora o f Pakistan[12],[13],[14]. and small trees, and is found up to an elevation of 900 m, consisting of small trees and thorny shrubs. Representative areas of such forest are Thakot to Kond Saiyidan. Acacia modesta, Mallotus philippensis, Albizia lb izia lebbeck, Bauhinia variegata, Dalbergia sisso and Ficus racemosa are the dominant trees of the forest. The co mmon shrubs are Dodonaea viscosa, Justicia adhatoda, Rubus fructicousus and Myrtus royleanus. 3.1.2. Sub Tropical Ch ir-Pine Forests Chir pine (Pinus roxburghii) forest is found at altitudinal zone ranging between 900 to 1500 m, occupying an area of 133ha at Chiran. Broad-leaved associates in these forests are Quercus incana. The undergrowth consists of Woodfordia fruticosa, Indigofera heterantha, Berberis lyceum and Rosa moschata. Ground flora mainly consists of g rass es . 3. Results A total of 415 species of vascular p lants, belonging to 111 families were collected and identified fro m Allai Valley. Pteridophytes were represented by 9 families and 23 species, Gy mnosperms by 3 families and 8 species, Angiosperms by 99 families and 384 species. The wellrepresented families were Asteraceae contributing 41 species, Rosaceae by 29 species, Labiatae and Papilionaceae by 22 species each; Poaceae follo wed them by 16 species. Among the 415 species reported, 246 species were herbs, 75 shrubs, 68 trees, 06 climb ing shrubs, 18 climbers and 03 epiphytes. The plants were classified according to local, traditional and economic value. Most of the plant species were used for mult ipurpose. Based on local uses, there were 185 medicinal plants, 21 were poisonous, 261 were fodder species, 126 were fuel wood species, 37 were t imber yielding plants, 43 were thatching and sheltering plants, 31 were hedge plants, 73 were wild ornamental, 100 were weeds, 48 species yield edible fru its and seeds, 43 were used as vegetable and pot herb. The conservation status of the vascular plants of Allai valley shows that 5 plant species are critically endangered locally. The critically endangered species include; Acer caesium, Betula utilis, Dioscorea deltoidea, Taxus wallichiana and Ulmus wallichiana. 3.1. Forest Types According to the classification of forest types of Pakistan coupled with ecological condition, most of the fo rest of Allai Valley fall under Moist Temperate category of the internationally known Western Himalayan Moist Temperate ecology[3]. On the basis of available indicator species the Allai Valley forests can further be classified into the following six categories: 3.1.1. Tropical Sub Hu mid Forest It is a scrub forest, consisting mainly of dry bushy shrubs 3.1.3. The Moist Temperate Blue Pine Forest Blue pine (Pinus wallichiana) locally known as Pewouch occurs at the altitudinal zone ranging between 1500 to 2300m. The b lue pine forests are found in Pashto, Batila and Gantar. The broad-leaved associates in these forests are Juglans regia, Quercus dilatata, Quercus incana, Rhododendron arboreum that are found singly scattered or in groups in mo ist places. Undergrowth consists of Vibernu m cotonifoliu m, Cotoneaster microphylla, Cotoneaster nummalaria, Sarcococca saligna, Berberis lyciu m, Ind igofera heterantha, Rubus fructicousus and Rosa moschata, which are frequently found. Ground flora consists of Paeonia emodi, Fragaria nubicola and Viola s p ecies . 3.1.4. M ixed Coniferous Forests The predominant species of this forest are Silver fir (Abies pindrow) and Spruce (Picea s mithiana) along with Blue pine. Mixed coniferous forests occur between elevations of 2300 to 2800m in Shaeed Kandao, Shakoora, Ulao Khad man, Kage oba, Loedarra, Rashung, Raindarra, Jabbar, Koela, Balucha, Gantar, batila, Baleja and Pashto. The composition of the forest is strongly influenced by aspect. Hot southern slopes contain more o f b lue pine while on northern aspect Silver firs are predo minant. The forest is generally heterogeneous in nature having mixed age classes. The broad-leaved associates are Quercus dilatata, Juglans regia, Aesculus indica, Prunus padus and Acer species. Undergrowth consists of Parrotiopsis jacquemontiana, Berberis sp, Sp iraea vaccinifolia, Lonicera quinquelocularis and Vibernu m species. Ground flora consists of Fragaria nubicola, Podophyllu m emodi, Paeonia emodi, Geraniu m wallichianu m, Skimmia lau reola, and Euphorbia species. 3.1.5. Pure Fir and Spruce Fo rests Silver fir (Abies pindrow) and Spruce (Picea smithiana) locally known as “Achal” and “Kachar” respectively are usually found on the elevation ranging fro m 2800 to 3050 International Journal of Plant Research 2012, 2(4): 111-123 113 m. This type of forest is found in the co mpart ments of Gantar, Batila and Pashto. The broad-leaved associates are Juglans regia, Aesculus indica, Prunus padus, Quercus semicarp ifo lia, Populus ciliata, Taxus wallich iana, Ulmus wallichiana, Cornus macrophylla and Betula utilis. Undergrowth consists of Berberis sp, Des modiu m elegans, Vibernu m sp, Parrotiopsis jacquemontiana and Spiraea vaccinifolia. Ground flora consists of Ranunculus, Aquilegia, Aconitum, Skimmia, Atropa, Fragaria and Geraniu m species. 3.1.6. Alpine Pastures Alpine pastures are situated to the east of Gangwal – Jabbar valley forests forming the boundary between the Hillian and Jabori forest ranges. These pastures support a large nu mber of sheep, goats and cattle during summer. Betula utilis and Juniperus communis are found occasionally on rocky slopes. 3.2. The Ethno-botanical Use Classes During present study it was observed that the local people use the plant resources for various purposes. On the bases of their use the plants of Allai Valley can be classified as medicinal p lants, poisonous plants, fodder species, fuel wood species, timber y ield ing plants, thatching and sheltering plants, hedge plants, wild ornamental plants, weeds, edible fruits and seeds plants and vegetable and pot herb species. These classes are presented in Table 1. 3.2.1. Med icinal Plants During present survey it was noted that various parts of 185 p lant species are used for medicinal purpose. These include 23 ethno veterinary important plants. Some plant species are used individually, while other is in mixtures. The recipes may be in the form o f fresh plant material, powder, or in the form of Paste. The powder form may be taken in s mall quantity along with milk or water depends on the nature of disease. The recipes prepared fro m these med icinal p lants are generally used for curing several diseases such as asthma, cough, tonic, abdominal pain, expectorant, anthelmintic, carminative, jaundice, diarrhea, dysentery, on boils and snakebites etc. The impo rtant plants are; Acacia modesta, Aconitum heterophyllum, Acorus calamus, Ajuga bracteosa, Atropa acuminate, Berberis lyciu m, Mentha longifolia, Punica granatum, Podophyllum emodi, Valeriana jatamansi, Vio la canescens and Zanthoxylu m armatu m etc. Plants important with respect to ethno veterinary use are Asparagus officinalis, Cedrus deodara, Cissampelos pareira, Cotinus coggyria, Jas minu m officinale, Paeonia emodi, Podophyllum emod i, Poligonatum verticelatu m, Bistorta amplexicau lis, Populus alba, Pteris cretica, Ru mex dentatus, Urtica dioica and Vale riana jata mansi etc. 3.2.2. Poisonous Plants Twenty-one plant species are poisonous to man, livestock and fishes create various diseases in them. These include whole plant of Andrachne cordifolia, the red fruits of Arisaema flavu m causes numbness of tongue, vomit ing and coma, leaves of Cedrella serrata to cattle, fruits of Datura innoxia and Datura stramoniu m, whole plant of Neriu m indicu m, lotus corniculatus and Urtica dioica. Persicaria stagnina and Dioscorea deltoidea are crushed and used as fish poison. 3.2.3. Fodder Plant Species The livestock feed on 261 p lant species. The fodder plant species may be used in fresh and dried form. The local people cut grass in the month of September and dried it and then fed to livestock during winter. These include Avena fatua, Agrostis hissarica, A maranthus sp, Cyperus sp, Dactylis glo merata, Heteropogon contortus, Kyllinga brevifolia, Lygodiu m hazaricu m, Ph leu m pratense, Poa infirma, Themeda anathera and Trifoliu m repens. The leaves of Acacia modesta, Ailanthus altissima, Alangiu m chinense, Betula utilis, Morus sp, Olea ferrugenea, Quercus sp and Robinia pseudo acacia are used as fodder for goats and sheep. 3.2.4. Fuel Wood Species There are 126 plant species that are used as fuel wood and various parts like stem, branches and roots of these plants are burnt for cooking and heating purposes. Some of them are Abies pindrow, Acacia modesta, Ailanthus altissima, Aesculus indica, Alnus nitida, Bauhin ia variegata, Berberis lyciu m, Diospyrus lotus, Dodonaea viscosa, Indigofera heterantha, Pinus ro xburghii, Pinus wallichiana, Prunus padus, Taxus wallichiana, Ulmus wallich iana, Ficus, Morus and Quercus species. 3.2.5. Timber Yielding Plants There are 37 timber wood species. The timber yielding plants are used in roof, doors, and windows and in furniture’s. So me of them are Abies pindrow, Aesculus indica, Diospyros lotus, Juglans regia, Picea smithiana, Pinus roxburghii, Pinus wallichiana, Platanus orientalis and Ulmus wallichiana. 3.2.6. Thatching / Sheltering Plants Forty three plant species are used for thatching and sheltering purposes and are placed on the roof above timbers. These include branches of Abies pindrow, Cot inus coggyria, Des modiu m elegans, Deutzia staminea, Dodonaea viscosa, Indigofera heterantha, Picea s mithiana, Pinus ro xburghii, Pinus wallichiana, Phrag mites australis, Sarcococca saligna and Spiraea vaccin ifolia. 3.2.7. Fencing and Hedge Plants Fences and hedges are made up by 31 bushy and spiny plant species and are either cultivated on the margins of the fields and form a permanent fencing or b ranches of these 114 Faizul Haq et al.: Species Diversity and Ethno Botanical Classes of the Flora of Allai Valley District Battagram Pakistan plants are fixed in the soil for making temporary fencing. These include Acacia modesta, Berberis lyciu m, Caesalpinia decapitala, Gy mnosporia royleana, Robinia pseudoacacia, Rosa moschata, Rubus ellipt icus, Rubus fructicousus, Rubus ulmifolius, Zanthoxy lu m armatu m, Zizyphus oxyphylla and Zizyphus vulgare. 3.2.8. Wild Orna mental Plants There are 73 plant species that are considered as wild ornamental due to their fragrant and color of flo wers in the area including Androsace hazarica, Althaea ludwigii, Aquilegia pubiflo ra, Delphinu m vestitum, Hypericu m oblongifoliu m, Impatiens bicolor, Inula royleana, Jas minu m sp, Narcissus tazetta, Onopordum acanthiu m, Rosa moschata, Solanu m pseudocapsicum, Spiraea vaccin ifolia and Tulipa stellata. 3.2.9. Weeds Hundred plant species are weeds that grow along cereal plants and compete for nutrients and cause less productivity of cereal crops including Conyza canadensis, Cynodon dactylon, Ipomoea eriocarpa, Ipo moea turbinata, Ranunculus arvensis, Tagetes minuta and Xanthium stromariu m. 3.2.10. Plants that Yields Ed ible Fru its There are 48 p lants that bear edible fruits and seeds including Berberis sp, Diospyros sp, Duchesnea indica, Ficus sp, Juglans regia, Morus sp, Rubus sp, Solanum nigru m, Vit is jacquemontii and Zizyphus sp. 3.2.11. Vegetable and Potherb Species There are 43 wild p lant species that are used as vegetables and potherbs, including Alliu m filidens, Amaranthus viridus, Capsella bursa- pastoris, Dryopteris jaxtapostia, Lepidiu m, apctalu m, Lepidiu m pinnatifidu m, Medicago denticulata, Medicago lupulina, Mentha longifolia, Mentha spicata, Portulaca o leracea and Thymus lin ear is . 3.3. Conservation Status During present study it was noted that 5 plant species were crit ically endangered locally under IUCN criteria version 3.1. These plant species fall under criteria A, B, C and D. The critically endangered species include; Acer caesium, Betula utilis, Dioscorea deltoidea, Taxus wallichiana and Ulmus wallichiana. 3.4. Major Threats to the Fl ora of Allai Valley Due to increase of human population and constant unplanned overexp loitation of p lants for medicinal, timber, firewood, fodder and thatching purposes has damaged the vascular flo ra of the selected area. Other threats to the flora are loss of habitat, unplanned collection, deforestation, over grazing, erosion, change of environment, attack of pathogens and effect of introduced taxa. 4. Discussion Plant biodiversity are precious endowment of nature upon which mankind has always been dependent. The authentic knowledge of plants is based on trial and error and passed on fro m one generation to another, after refin ing and additions[15]. The rep lacement of wild plants with desired cultivated crops on large scale has affected the availability of p lants in their natural habitat[16]. World wide land cover, is altered principally by direct human use; through agriculture, pasture, forestry, and development[17], due to which natural habitats are reduced, leaving less area available for native species[18]. In some parts of the globe including Himalayan region, the humans are using plant resources very ruthlessly[19]. During the last hundred years, the area has been subjected to major structural changes leading to a decrease of about 50% of the potential forest area[9]. The loss and degradation of natural fo rests clearly imp lies a decline in species number and genetic diversity of population[10]. The mo ist temperate Himalayas deserve specific attention to the conservation of environment and the sustainable development of plant resources. Recently the species diversity of vascular p lant[3], med icinal flora[15] and conservation status of critically endangered and endangered species[20] were exp lored in Nandiar Valley, and medicinal flora of Allai Valley[1] District Battagram, Western Himalayas Pakistan. There is no such study on the species diversity of Allai Valley; therefore Allai Va lley has been selected for present study. During present study the species diversity and ethno botanical uses of 415 species of vascular plants was explored fro m sub tropical foothills to alpine pastures including 13 alien plant species which are naturalized and established in Allai valley. These alien plant species were introduced from other parts of Asia, Australia, Africa, Europe and America. The people of the valley use plant resources for their various ailments. They collect plants for medicinal uses, fuel wood, fodder, timber, and many other purposes. They prepare the recipes through personal experience and ancestral prescript ion form sa me plants or mixed with other plants. These recipes are taken in the form of fresh, powder or in paste form. The powder form may be taken with water or milk. Certain plant species are poisonous and causes various diseases in man, livestock and fishes. So me of these plants causes allergy in hu man. A large number of p lant species are used as fodder for livestock. These fodder species are used both in fresh and dried form. The local people use many plant species as fuel wood for cooking and heat during winter. Due to lack of facilities in the area, the local people construct their houses from stones and clay and use certain plant species for timber upon which thatching and sheltering plant species are kept to support the roof. Around the cultivated lands the fences are made fro m thorny plant species to protect the crop from the attack of cattle. Certain plant species has given beauty and fragrance International Journal of Plant Research 2012, 2(4): 111-123 115 to the study area due to different color o f the flo wers. There are many plant species that compete with cereal plants and cause less productivity in the yield of cereal crops. The local people also eat the fruits of various wild plants and also use various plants as potherb species. The conservation study in the selected area shows that 5 plant species were critically endangered locally under IUCN c riteria version 3.1, fall under criteria A, B, C and D. The major threats to the flora of Allai valley are unplanned over explo itation of plants for various purposes, loss of habitat, deforestation, over grazing, erosion, change of environment, attack of pathogens and effect of introduced taxa . 5. Conclusions Fro m the present study it was concluded that there is a great impact of hu man life on the local vegetation. They collect plants in access quantity and are ignorant about the drying, storing or preservation techniques, wh ich ult imately lead to the wastage of plant resource. Plants in general and med icinal p lants in part icular in the study area are a finite and precious resource that requires efficient, wise and sustainable management and conservation strategies. Recommendati ons Allai valley is rich in vascular p lants diversity in general and medicinal plants in particu lar, but the present status of species diversity of vascular plants is quite different fro m what existed only a short time ago. Sadly several valuable species have vanished without a chance of being studied. Therefore plant conservation is a critical task in this particular area. The local co mmun ities of the area have the knowledge of traditional uses of most of the medicinal plants. This indigenous knowledge has been transferred fro m generation to generation. But the future generation will not inherit the precious indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants if it is not properly documented and conserved. The forests are continuously depleting due to high human pressure and lack of proper management. The local people are unaware of the proper collect ing of timber, fuel wood and med icinal p lants. Proper co mmun ity train ing and induction of the scene of the conservation for floral diversity will lead to sustainable use of plants in the area. Social organization and co mmunity training on the sustainable use of plant resources is only effective, if carried out through an organized co mmunity. With local organization, the commun ity can fu lly and efficiently achieves its goals and objectives. Due to lack of management or poor management the rangelands are degraded, because of livestock pressure. The potential of these rangelands should be restored through control grazing. The floral resources of the study area needs further attention of the resources as little has been done in this field. Therefore a detailed phytosocialogical survey of vegetation types is recommended in different seasons, for evaluating the conservation status of floral resources of the selected area. Agriculture can p lay an important role in the development of the area due to the availability of fertile land and water resources adopting modern agricultura l tools and techniques can increase the production of existing crops. The promotion of horticultural act ivity, fruits trees plantation and vegetables growing is strongly needed through extension services. The selected area provides ideal potential for honeybee keeping and poultry forming. Train ing the community with the modern techniques of apiculture and poultry forming will create extra job opportunities and dependence of people on the natural resources will minimized. Improved apiculture will also improve the crop yield through effective pollination. Cult ivation of medicinal p lants on scientific lines will be useful to reduce pressure on natural flora. A mass awareness campaign should be launched on both governmental and community level in order to pro mote awareness among the people about the importance of p lants and conservation of the flora. Provision of civic facilit ies in the area like road, health, education, water supply, electricity, natural gas and telephone will not only improve the living standard of the people but will also lead to the sustainable use of the resources and ecological development of the area. Table .1. Ethno-botanical profile of vascular plants of Allai valley S. No 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Botanica names Abies pindrow Royle Abelia triflora R.Br. ex Wallich. Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd. Acacia modesta Wall. Acer caesium Wall. Achillea mellefolium L. Achyranthus aspera L. Achyranthus bidentata Blume Aconitum heterophyllum Wall.ex Royle Acorus calamus L. Adiantum capillus veneris L. Adiantum incisum Forssk Use classes A BCDE FGHI J K + - - + + +- - - - - - - +- -+- --- - - +- -- +--+- ++- -+- --- - +++-- - --+ - + - - - - + +- + + - + - - - - - +- - - - + - - - - - +- - +-- - - -- - --+-- - - -- - --+-- - - -- - --+-- - - -- - --- 116 Faizul Haq et al.: Species Diversity and Ethno Botanical Classes of the Flora of Allai Valley District Battagram Pakistan 13. Adiantum venustum D. Don 14. Aegopodium burttii E. Nasir 15. Aeschynomene indica L. 16. Aesculus indica ( Wall. ex Cambl.) Hook.f. 17. Agrimonia eupatoria L. 18. Agrostis hissarica Rozhev. 19. Ailanthus altissima (M ill.) Swingle 20. Ajuga br acteosa Wall.ex Benth 21. Alangium chinense (Lour.) Harm. 22. Albezia lebbeck (Asb.) Stewart 23. Alliaria petiolata (M .Bieb.) Cavara. 24. Allium filidens Regel. 25. Alnus nitida (Spach.) Endl 26. Alotis stoliczkai Clarke 27. Althaea ludwigii L. 28. Amaranthus caudatus L. 29. Amaranthus viridus L. 30. Anagalis arvensis L. 31. Anagalis phoenicea Gern. 32. Anaphalis busa DC. 33. Andrachne cordifolia (Wall.ex Dc.) M uell. 34. Androsace hazarica Y. J. Nasir 35. Androsace rotundifolia Hardw. 36. Aquilegia pubiflora Wall.ex Royle 37. Arabis bijuga G. Watt. 38. Arisaema flavum Forssk. 39. Arisaema jacquemontii Blume 40. Artemisia japonica Thunb. 41. Artemisia roxbur ghiana Wall. ex Bess. 42. Artemisia vulgaris L. 43. Asparagus filicinus Bunch–Ham.ex D.Don. 44. Asparagus officinalis L. 45. Asplenium cordatum G. Forst. 46. Asplenium cunifolium Altunat. 47. Asplenium trichomonas L. 48. Aster himalaicus C. B. Clarke 49. Astragalis ammophilus Karelin. 50. Astragalis graveolens Buch. 51. Astragalis leucocephalus Grach.ex Benth 52. Atropa acuminata Royle 53. Atylosia platycarpa Benth 54. Avena fatua L. 55. Bauhinia variegata L. 56. Berberis jaeschkeana C.K. Schneider 57. Berberis lycium Royle 58. Bergenia ciliata Sternb. 59. Betula utilis D. Don 60. Bistorta emodi (M eisn) Hara 61. Broussonetia papyrifera Vent 62. Buplerum hazaricum Nasir 63. Buplerum longicaule Wall.ex DC 64. Caesalpinia decapetala (Roth) Alston 65. Calotropis procera (Willd)R.Br. 66. Caltha alba 67. Cannabis sativa L. 68. Capsella bursa pestoris (L.) M edik. 69. Cardamine impatiens L. 70. Carex cardiolepis Nees. 71. Carex foliosa D. Don 72. Carex serotina M crat. 73. Caropteris grata Benth. 74. Carpesium abrotanoides L. 75. Carpesium nepalense Less. +-- - - -- - --- - +- - -- - --- - - + - - - - - +- - +- - ++-- - --- - +- - -- +--- - +- - -- - --- - +++-- - --+-- - - -- - --+ - - +++-- +--+- - ++-- - --- - + - - - - - +- + +-- - - -- +--+ - - - ++-- - --- - + - - - - - +- - - + - - - - + +++ + - + - - - - - +- + - + - - - - - +- + + - + - - - - - +- + - - + - - - - - +- - - + - - - - - +- + - ++ + - +- - - - - - +- - -- +--- - +- - -- +--- +- - - - - + - - - - + - - - - - +- + + +- - - - - - - - + +- - - - - - - - + - - - - +- - - - + +- - - +- - - - + - - + - +- - - - + - + - - - - - +- +-- - - -- - --- - +- - -- - --- - +- - -- - --- - +- - -- - --- - +- - -- +--- - +- - -- - --- - +- - -- - --+ - - +- - -- - --+ +-- - - -- - --- - +- - -- - --- - + - - - - - +- - - - ++-- - --- - + + - - + - - ++ - + + - - + - - ++-- - - -- - --+- +++-- - --+ - + - - - - - +- - - - ++-- +--+ - + - - - - - +- - - + - - - - - +- +- - +- -+- --+ +- - - - - + - - +- +- - -- - --+- - +- -- - --- - +- - -- - --+ - - + - - - - - +- + - - +- - -- - --- - +- - -- - --- - +- - -- - --- - + - - +- - - - - - +- - -- - --- - +- - -- - --- International Journal of Plant Research 2012, 2(4): 111-123 117 76. Cedrella serrata Royle 77. Cedrus deodara Roxb. ex Lamb. 78. Celosia argentea L. 79. Celtis australis L. 80. Centaurea iberica Trevir ex Sprengel 81. Cephalanthera longifolia (L.) Fritsch 82. Cheilanthes albo-marginata Clarke 83. Cheilanthus dalhousiae Hook.f. 84. Chenopodium album L. 85. Chloris pilosa Schumachar 86. Cichorium intybus L. 87. Cichorium nandiaricum 88. Cirsium falconeri (Hook. f.) Petrak. 89. Cissampelos pareira L. 90. Clematis connata DC. 91. Clematis grata Wall. 92. Clematis montana Buch. 93. Colebrookia oppositifolia Smith 94. Convolvulus arvensis L. 95. Conyza Canadensis L. Cronq. 96. Cornus macrophylla Wall. 97. Cortaderia selloana 98. Corydalis stewartii Fedde 99. Cotinus coggyria Scop. 100. Cotoneaster bacillaris Wall. ex. Lind. 101. Cotoneaster integerrima M edic. 102. Cotoneaster microphylla Wall. ex Lindl. 103. Cotoneaster nummularia Fisch.& M ey 104. Crataegus sonagarica G. Koch. 105. Crotalaria medicaginea Lamk. 106. Cupressus sempervirens L. 107. Cuscuta gigantea Griff. 108. Cynodon dactylon L. 109. Cynoglossum lanceolatum Forsk. 110. Cyperus iria L. 111. Cyperus neveus Retz. 112. Cystopteris fragilis (L.) Benth. 113. Dactylis glomerata L. 114. Dalbergia sisso Roxb. 115. Daphne mucronata Royle 116. Daphne papyracea Wall .ex Steud. 117. Datura innoxia M iller 118. Datura stramonium L. 119. Debregessia salcifolia (D.Don) Rendle 120. Delphinum vestitum Wall.ex Royle 121. Descurainia sophia (Linn.) Webb. 122. Desmodium elegans DC. 123. Deutzia staminea R. Br .ex Wall. 124. Dicliptra bupleorides Nees 125. Dioscorea deltoidea Wall. ex Kunth 126. Dioscorea melenophyma Burkill & Prain 127. Diospyros kaki L. 128. Diospyros lotus L. 129. Diplazium kawakamii 130. Dodonaea vescosa (L.) Jacq. 131. Dryopteris blandfordi Hope. 132. Dryopteris jaxtapostia Chirst. 133. Dryopteris serrate dentata (Bedd.) Hay 134. Dryopteris wallichiana (Spring.) Hyl. 135. Duchesnea indica (Andr.) Focke. 136. Duhaldea cappa Anderb. 137. Echinochloa colona (linn.) Link. 138. Echinochloa oryzoides (Ard.) Fritsch + +- ++- - - - - - +- - ++-- - --- - - + - - - - + +- - +- +++-- - --- - - - - - - - - +- - +-- - - -- +--- - -- - - -- - --- - -- - - -- - --- - - + - - - - - +- + - - + - - - - - +- + + - - - - - - - +- - - - +- - -- - --- - - +- - -- - --- +- +- - -- - --- - - +- - -- - --- +- +- - -- - --- +- +- - -- - --- - - + + - ++ - - - - + - + - - - - - +- - - - + - - - - - +- - +- +++-- +--- - - +- - -- +--- +- +- - -- - --- + - - + - +- - - - - - - - +- -- - --- - - - +- -- - --- + - - + - +- - - +- + - - + - +- - - +- + - - + - - + - - +- - - +- - -- - --- - - - +- -- +--- +-- - - -- - --- + - + - - - - - +- - - - +- - -- - + - - - +- - -- - --- - - +- - -- - --- - -- - - -- - --- - - + - - - - - +- - +- +++-- - --- + - - + - - - - - +- + - - + - +- - - - - + +- - - - - + - - - + +- - - - - + - - - +- - +- -+- --- - +- - - - - + - - - + - + - - - - - +- - + - + + - +- - - - - + - - + - +- - - - - - - + - - - - - +- - + +- - - - - - - - - - - +- - -- - --- - - - + - - - + - +- + - - + + - - - - +- - - +- - -- - --- + - - + - ++ - - - - - - + - - - - - +- + +- +- - -- - --+ - - +- - -- - --+ - - +- - -- - --- + - + - - - - - - +- - - + + - +- - - - - - - + - - - - - +- - - - + - - - - - +- - 118 Faizul Haq et al.: Species Diversity and Ethno Botanical Classes of the Flora of Allai Valley District Battagram Pakistan 139. Ehretia serrata Roxb. 140. Elaegnus umbellata Thunb. 141. Eleocharis umiglumis (Link) Schultes 142. Elsholtzia fruticosa (Roxb .ex D. Don) 143. Elsholtzia strobilifera Benth. 144. Epilobium rhychospermum Hausskn. 145. Equisetum arvense L. 146. Equisetum hiemale L. 147. Erodium cicutarium L. 148. Erophila verna (L.) Besser 149. Eucalyptus globules 150. Euphorbia cognata Boiss. 151. Euphorbia helioscopia L. 152. Euphorbia indica Lam. 153. Euphorbia wallichii Hook.f. 154. Fagopyrum dibotrys (D. Don) Hara 155. Fallopia convolvulus L. 156. Ferula sp. 157. Ficus carica Forsk. 158. Ficus palmata Forsk. 159. Ficus racemosa L. 160. Ficus sarmentosa Buch. 161. Filipendula vestita M axim. 162. Foeniculum vulgare M iller 163. Fragaria nubicola Lindl. 164. Fumaria indica (Husskin) H. N. 165. Gagea satifolia Baker. 166. Galinsoga parviflora Cav. 167. Gallium aparine L. 168. Gentiana karelinii DC. 169. Gentianodes pedicellata D. Don 170. Geranium collinum Steph .ex Willd. 171. Geranium lucidum L. 172. Geranium rotundifolium L. 173. Geranium wallichianum D.Don 174. Gerberia gossipiana (Royle) Beauv. 175. Geum roylei Bolle. 176. Girardiana palmata (Forssk) Gaugich. 177. Glochidon velutinum Wight. 178. Grewia optiva Drum.ex Burret. 179. Gymnosporia royleana Wall.ex Lawson. 180. Hedra nepalensis K. Koch. 181. Heliotropium cabulicum Bunge. 182. Heracleum cochemiricum C. B. Clarke. 183. Heteropogon contortus L. 184. Himalrandia tetrasperma (Roxb.) Yama. 185. Hypericum oblongifolium Choisy 186. Hypericum perforatum L. 187. Ilex dipyrena Wall. 188. Impatiens bicolor Royle 189. Impatiens brachycentra Kar. 190. Impatiens edgeworthii Hook.f. 191. Impatiens sulcata Wall. 192. Indigof era heterantha Well.ex Brandis 193. Inula acuminata Royle .ex DC. 194. Inula royleana DC. 195. Ipomoea eriocarpa R. Br. Proder 196. Ipomoea nil (linn.) Roth. 197. Ipomoea turbinate Lag. 198. Iris germanica L. 199. Isodon coetsa Buch. Ham .ex D. Don. 200. Isodon rugosus L. 201. Jasminum humile L. - - +++-- - --+ - - + - - + - - +- - + - - - - - +- - - + - - - - - +- - - + - - - - - +- - - +- - -- - --+-- - - -- - --+-- - - -- - --- - + - - - - - +- - - + - - - - - +- + - - - ++-- +--- +- - - - - - - - - +- - - - - - +- +-- - - -- - --+ +- - - - - - - - - - +- - -- - --- - + - - - - - +- +-- - - -- - --+ - - + - - - - - ++ - - + - - - - - ++ - - + - - - - - +- - - - - - - + - +- - +- - -- - --+ - - - - - - - - ++ + - + - - - - + - ++- +- - -- - --- - + - - - - + +- - - + - - - - - +- + - + - - - - - +- - - +- - -- - --+-- - - -- - --- - +- - -- - --- - +- - -- - --+- +- - -- - --+- +- - -- - --+-- - - -- - --- - + - - - - - +- - - - - - - - - +- - - - +- -+- --+- +++-- - --+- - +- -+- --+- +- - -- - --- - + - - - - - +- - - + - - - - - +- - - +- - -- - --- - - +- -+- --- - + - - +- + - - + - + - - - - - +- - - - +- -- - --+ - + - - - - + +- - - +- - -- +--- - + - - - - + +- - - +- - -- +--+ - - + - +- - - - - - +- - -- - --+- +- - -- +--- - + - - - - - +- - - + - - - - - +- - - + - - - - - +- - - - - - - - + +- - - + + - +- - - - + - + + - +- - - - +-- - - -- +--- International Journal of Plant Research 2012, 2(4): 111-123 119 202. Jasminum officinale L. 203. Juglans regia L. 204. Juncus articulatus L. 205. Juniperus communis Brand. 206. Justicia adhatoda L. 207. Koeleria macrantha Schult 208. Kyllinga brevifolia Rottb. 209. Lallemantia royleana Benth. 210. Lamium album L. 211. Lathyrus aphaca L. 212. Lathyrus sphaericus Retz. 213. Launea procumbens Roxb. 214. Leontopodium brachyoctis Gandoger 215. Lepidium apetalum Willd. 216. Lepidium pinnatifidum Ledeb. 217. Lespedeza gerardiana Graham ex M axim. 218. Leucostegia pulchra D. Don 219. Lindelofia stylosa Brand. 220. Lonicera quinquelocularis Hardw. 221. Lotus corniculatus L. 222. Lygodium hazaricum 223. Lyonia ovalifolia (Wall.) Prude 224. M allotus philippensis (Lam) M uell 225. M alva neglecta Wall. 226. M arrubium vulgare L. 227. M arsilea quadrifolia L. 228. M atricaria aurea (Loefl.) Schultz. 229. M edicago denticulata Willd. 230. M edicago lupulina L. 231. M elia azedarach L. 232. M elilotos altissima Thiull. 233. M entha longifolia (L.) Huds. 234. M entha spicata L. 235. M icromeria biflora Buch. 236. M irabalis jalapa L. 237. M orus alba L. 238. M orus nigra L. 239. M orus serrata Roxb. 240. M osla dianthera (Buch, -Ham) M axim. 241. Myrsine africana L. 242. Myrtus communis L. 243. Narcissus tazetta L. 244. Nasturtium officinale R. Br. 245. Nepeta cataria L. 246. Nerium indicum M ill. 247. Neslia apiculata Fisch. 248. Notholirion thomsonianum (D. Don) Stapf 249. Oenothera affinis Camb. 250. Oenothera rosea L. 251. Olea ferrugenea Royle 252. Onopordum acanthium L. 253. Onosma echioides 254. Ophipogon intermedius Banddi. D. Don 255. Opuntia dilleni Haw. 256. Origanum vulgare L. 257. Otostegia limbata (Benth.) Boiss. 258. Oxalis corniculata L. 259. Paeonia emodi Wall ex Hook. f. 260. Papaver rhoes L. 261. Parrotiopsis jacquemontiana (Dec.) Rehder 262. Persicaria nepalensis M eisn. 263. Persicaria stagnina Buch-Ham. 264. Phalangium acuminatum Boiss. +-- - - -- +--+ - - + + - - - - +- - +- - -- - --+- - +- -- - --+ +- - - +- + - - - - + - - - - - +- + - - + - - - - - +- - - +- - -- - --- - +- - -- - --+ - + - - - - - ++- - + - - - - - +++-- - - -- - --- - +- - -- - --- - + - - - - - +- + - - + - - - - - +- + - - +- - -- - --- - +- - -- +--- - +- - -- - --- - + + - +- + - - - +- - - - - - +- - - +- - -- - --- +- +- - + - - - +- - +- -+- --+ - + - - - - - +- + +- +- - -- - --- - - - - - - - +- - - + - - - - - +- - - + - - - - - +- + - - + - - - - - +- + +- - ++-- - --- - +- - -- - --+-- - - -- - --+ +-- - - -- - --+ +- +- - -- - --+- +- - -- +--+ - + + + - - - - ++ - + + + - - - - ++ - + + - - - - - +- - + - - - - - +- - - + + - +- - - ++- - +- -- - --- -- - - -- +--- - +- - -- - --+ - - + - - - - - +- + +- +- - - + - - - - + - - - - - +- - - +- - -- +--- - +- - -- +--- - + - - - - - +- +- +++-- - --- - - - - - - + +- +-- - - -- - --- - +- - -- - --+-- - - -+- --+ - + - - - - - +- +- - +- -+- --+-- - - -- - --+ +-- - - -- - --- - + - - - - + +- - - - + - +- - - - - - +- - -- +--+ ++ - - - - + +- - -- - - -- +--- 120 Faizul Haq et al.: Species Diversity and Ethno Botanical Classes of the Flora of Allai Valley District Battagram Pakistan 265. Phleum pratense L. 266. Phlomis bracteosa Royle .ex Benth. 267. Phlomis rotata Royle .ex Benth. 268. Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex steud. 269. Phragmites karka (Retz.) Trin. ex Steud. 270. Physalis divaricata D. Don 271. Picea smithiana (Wall.) Boiss. 272. Picris hieraciodes L. 273. Pinus roxburghii Surgent 274. Pinus wallichiana A. B. Jackson 275. Pistacea integerrima J. L. Stewart 276. Plantago lanceolatum L. 277. Plantago major Aitch. 278. Platanus orientalis L. 279. Pleurospermum brunonis (DC.)Clarke 280. Poa infirma H. B. K. 281. Podophyllum emodi Wall .ex Royle 282. Poligonatum verticilatum (L.) All. 283. Bistortaum amplexicaule D. Don 284. Polygonum plebejum R. Br. 285. Populs ciliata Wall. 286. Populus alba L. 287. Populus nigra L. 288. Portulaca oleracea L. 289. Potentilla gerardiana Lindl. 290. Potentilla nepalensis Hook.f. 291. Potentilla sericophylla Parker 292. Potentilla sundaica (Blume) O. Kuntze 293. Primula denticulata Smith 294. Prinsepia utilis Royle 295. Prunella vulgaris L. 296. Prunus arminiaca M arsh. 297. Prunus domistica L. 298. Prunus padus Hook.f. 299. Prunus persica L. 300. Pseudognaphalium hypolecum (DC.)O. M . 301. Pseudognaphalium luteo album (L.) O. M . 302. Psychrogeton andryaloides (DC.) Novo. 303. Pteracanthus urticifolius Bremek 304. Pteridium equilinum (L.) Kuhn. 305. Pteris cretica L. 306. Pteris longifolia L. 307. Pulicaria dysentrica L. 308. Punica granatum L. 309. Pycreus flavidus (Retz) T. Koyama 310. Pyrus communis L. 311. Pyrus malus L. 312. Pyrus pashia L. 313. Quercus baloot Griffith. 314. Quercus dilatata Lindle. ex Royle 315. Quercus glauca Thunb. 316. Quercus incana Roxb. 317. Quercus semicarpifolia Smith. 318. Ranunculus arvensis L. 319. Ranunculus hirtellus Royle 320. Ranunculus laetus Wall .ex Hook .f. 321. Ranunculus palmatifidus Hook.f. 322. Rhamnus virgata Roxb. 323. Rheum australe D. Don 324. Rhododendron arboreum Smith 325. Rhus javanica L. 326. Rhynchosia pseudocajan Camb. 327. Ricinus communis L. - - +- - -- - --- - +- - -- - --- - +- - -- - --- - + + - ++ - - - - - + + - ++ - - - - - + - - - - - ++- - - ++-- - --- - +- - -- +--+ - - + + +- - - - - - - + + +- - - - +- - ++-- - --+ - + - - - - - +- + - + - - - - - +- +- - ++-- +--- - + - - - - - +- - - + - - - - - +- +-- - - -- - --+-- - - -- - --+- +- - -- - --+ + - + - - - - - +- + - + + + +- - - - +- ++- -- - --- - - ++-+- --+-- - - -- - --+ +- +- - -- - --+- +- - -- +--- - + + - +- - - - - - +- - -- - --+- +- - -- +--- - - + - ++ + - +- - +- - -- - --+ - + + - - - - - ++ - + + - - - - - +- - + + + - - - - ++ - + + - - - - - +- - +- - -- +--- - +- - -- +--- - +- - -- - --- - + - - - - - +- - -- - - -- - --+ +-- - - -- - --- - +- - -- - --- - +- - -- - --+ - - + - - - - - +- - +- - -- - --+ - + + - - - - - ++ - + + - - - - - ++ - + + - - - - - +- - - +- -- - --+- ++- -- - --- - ++- -- - --+- ++- -- - --- - ++- -- - --- - + - - - - - +- - - + - - - - - +- - - + - - - - - +- - - +- - -- - --- - - +- -- - --+-- - - -- - --+- - +- -- +--+ - - + - - - - - +- - + - - - - - +- + +- - - - + - - - -

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