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Evaluation of 20 local peanut varieties in banbala by quantitative and morphological characters

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  • Save International Journal of Plant Research 2013, 3(3): 39-45 DOI: 10.5923/j.plant.20130303.04 Assessment of Twenty Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdcourt) Landraces using Quantitative Morphological Traits Sobda Gonné1,*, Wassouo Félix-Alain2, Koubala Bargui Benoît3 1Department of Annual Crops, Institute of Agricultural Research for Development, M aroua, P.o.Box 33, Cameroon 2Department of Agriculture, Livestock and Derived Products, Higher Institute of Sahel, University of M aroua, M aroua, P.o.Box 46, Cameroon 3Department of Life and Earth Sciences, Higher Teacher’s Training School, University of M aroua, M aroua, P.o.Box 55, Cameroon Abstract Vigna subterranea (L) verdcourt is grown for food and income in the savannah zone of Cameroon. Ho wever, few studies have been conducted to investigate the variability of the existing landraces. The study aimed to characterize farmer’s landraces using quantitative morphological descriptors for further selections in the breeding program. Twenty morphotypes collected fro m farmers, were p lanted in pots in the greenhouse during the off season at the Regional Research Centre of Maroua. The experiment was conducted in a Randomised Co mplete Block Design with four replications using the watering facilit ies at the station. Ten variables were subjected to analysis of variance on Genstat 12th edition. Multivariate analysis of these variables was performed on XLSTAT version 2013 and inte rrelationships were established among the descriptors. A significant variab ility was revealed among the morphotypes. Moreover, it appeared that the landraces could be group into five distinctive classes. In addition the earliness of flowering, number of po d per plant, pod and grain yield per p lant were the most discriminant factors, suggesting their consideration when selecting for agronomic superior traits. Significant correlations were shown between number of stems 4WAS and 9WAS (r = 0.56); grain width and length (r = 0.79); pod yield and number per plant (r = 0.90); pod yield and grain yield (r = 0.97) and between grain yield and number of pod per p lant (r = 0.91) highlighting the importance of these parameters in selection for the improvement of this crop. Keywords Bambara Groundnut, Legu mes , Morphological Characters, Northern Cameroon 1. Introduction In the tropical zones of Africa, cereals and legumes are the main sources of food and inco mes fo r farmers [1]. Among the cultivated legu mes, Bamba ra groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L) verdcourt) is one of the most important food crops after groundnut and cowpea[2]. It is widely cultivated in the West and Central Africa and the annual production is estimated at 140,198 tonnes. With an annual product ion of 30,000 tonnes, Cameroon is the second p ro ducer o f th is crop in A frica aft er Bu rkin a Faso , contributing for mo re than 21 % of the total production of the continent[3]. Bambara groundnut has the ability to adapt to divers and marginal agro-climatic conditions ([4],[5]) as it is the case of the northern Cameroon. Its seeds are highly nutritious containing 65% o f carbohydrates and 18% of proteins[6]. Chemical analyses showed that they contain * Corresponding author: (Sobda Gonné) Published online at Copyright © 2013 Scientific & Academic Publishing. All Rights Reserved 32.72% of total essential amino acids and 66.10% of total non-essential amino acids ([7];[8];[9]). Lysine is the major essential amino acid and represents 10.3% of the total essential amino acid. The fodders of Bambara groundnut are used to feed animals[6]. In some co mmun ities like Ibos in Nigeria, this p lant is used for medicinal purpose, leaves serve as anti-vomit ing when eaten in row ([5];[8]). As a legume crop, Bambara groundnut has the ability for nitrogen fixat ion through its nodules thus contributes to improve soil fert ility. Its grains are included in the daily d iet to compensate the lack of proteins in the food as it occurs frequently in most populations under the tropics[10]. This cop is mostly grown by fe male [11] on a sma ll scale, in pure culture without improved techniques. Despite the numerous advantages provided by Bambara groundnut, limited studies have been conducted on this edible crop in Cameron compared to the others such as sorghum, groundnut and cowpea. The similar observations have been made by[12] in the case of Burkina Faso. The production of Bambara groundnut is main ly limited by the lack of imp roved cultural techniques and the impact of pest insects and diseases ([13];[14]). The use of potential genetic resource 40 Sobda Gonnéet al.: Assessment of Twenty Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdcourt) Landraces using Quantitative M orphological Traits for plant breeding to control these constraints could help to increase the production and the productivity of this crop[15]. The objective of the present study was to characterize the Bambara groundnut morphotypes found in the local markets of the north Cameroon in the perspective of their conservation and integration into the breeding program. This would enhance their pro motion and valorisation in the farming systems, contributing finally to increase food s ecu rity . 2. Material and Methods 2.1. Experi mental Site The experiment was conducted during the dry season fro m December 2012 to March 2013 in the greenhouse of the Regional Agricultural Research Centre of Maroua located at Djarengol Station in the savannah zone. The station is at 900 m altitude and 10°59’ N; 14°30’ E. During the experimental period the temperatures varied fro m 17°C in November to 42°C in April; with a mean o f 34°C[16]. 2.2. Biological Material Cameroon in November 2012 at the end of the raining sea-son campaign, during the harvesting period. Based on the similarit ies observed in the form, colour, size and texture of the grain, the nu mber was reduced to twenty morphotypes. The characteristics of the samples are presented in table 1. 2.3. Experi mental Design The experiment was conducted in a rando mized co mp lete blocks design (RCBD) with four rep licat ions where the treatments were the twenty Bambara groundnut landraces and each experimental unit was consisted of a pot of 24 cm in diameter over 23 cm height containing 10 kg of sandy -clay soil[16]. The soil was filled in pots after having covered the small holes made at their bottom to avoid flooding with paper toile. In total, the experiment was consisted of 80 experimental units. Before sowing, the pots were regularly watered as needed using water fro m a tap in g reenhouse. Two seeds were sowed per pods and thinning was performed later to allo w 1 plant per pot three weeks after sowing. For the duration of the experiment, the plants were watered every three days during which each pot was filled at its maximu m capacity. Thirty five Bambara groundnut samples were collected fro m four most popular markets in the northern part of Table 1. Characteristics and collection area of the samples Landraces Market area Seeds coat colour Descript io n s Seed eye colour Seed shape VZ101 VZ102 VZ103 VZ104 VZ105 VZ106 VZ107 VZ108 VZ109 VZ110 VZ111 VZ112 VZ113 VZ114 VZ115 VZ116 VZ117 VZ118 VZ119 VZ120 Maroua Maroua Maroua Maroua Maroua Maroua Maroua Salak Salak Salak Salak Salak Meskine Meskine Meskine Meskine Meskine Gazawa Gazawa Gazawa Light brown with black spots Creamy with few light spotted brown Creamy with brown stripes Mott led Cream Black Light brown Purple with black spots Creamy spotted with grey Black Creamy spotted with light grey Cream Cream with brown stripes Purple spotted with white P urp le Cream Cream Cream Cream with brown spots Black White to light brown Black Dark brown surrounded by grey P urp le Brown surrounded by sky blue Black Light brown P urp le Brown surrounded by grey Black Brown surrounded by light grey Dark grey surrounded by sky-blue Black Dark brown surrounded by grey Dark purple light blue with grey spots P urp le wh it e Sky blue Black Oval Oval Round Oval Oval Oval Oval Oval Round Oval Round Oval Oval Round Oval Oval Oval Round Round Oval International Journal of Plant Research 2013, 3(3): 39-45 41 2.4. Data Collection The data were collected per pot and were based on the following 10 parameters (i) number of days for emergence (DEM ) fro m sowing to the apparition of the plant at the soil surface; (ii) nu mber of days to flowering (DFL) fro m the sowing day, (iii) Leaf area of plant (LA R), (iv) nu mber of Stems 4 weeks after sowing (STEM 1), (v) number of Stems 9 weeks after sowing (STEM 2), (v i) nu mber o f pod per plant at the harvesting (PPL), (v ii) pod yield (PYD), (viii) grain yield (GYP), (ix) grain width (GW) and (x) grain length (GL). Harvesting was done manually by removing completely the soil fro m the pots and destroying after wetting to allow pods collection. Then, the pods were hand threshed to remove the seeds . The pods and seeds were weighted per pods and the obtained values were used to determine the mean yield per Bambara groundnut genotype tested. Yield calcu lation was performed as follow: Y= W NP Y= Pod or Grain yield (g/plant) W = Total Pod or Grain weight (g) NP = Total Number of plant harvested 2.5. Data Analysis A general analysis of variance (ANOVA) for the recorded data was performed using GenStat statistical package 12th edition to establish differences among the varieties with regard to the quantitative estimates of the morphological traits. Multivariate analysis was made to the component principal analysis using XLSTAT version 2013 based on the means of these quantitative variables to establish the contribution of different t raits in the exp lanation of the total variation. Then, hierarch ical cluster analysis was performed to construct a dendogram g rouping the twenty variet ies into distinctive classes according to the similarly observed ([17];[18]). Finally, co mputation of Pearson Correlation was performed to establish interrelationships among the d es crip to rs . 3. Results and Discussion The samples were predominantly creamy fo r seed coat colour, oval shape seeds with various seed eye colour. Descriptive values (maximu m, minimu m, mean values standard deviation and coefficient of variation) of the estimated quantitative parameters are shown in table 2. The mean value for the number of days to emergence (9.44) is within the range (7 to 15 days after sowing) used by[19] in the description of the growth and development habit of Bambara groundnut. In addition, the results confirm those fro m[20] who mentioned the intervals of 6-15 DAS. However, these findings are contrary to those of[21] who found 14-24 DAS for emergence of Bambara groundnut. Furthermore the mean value of close to 44 DAS noted for days to flowering deviated the range of 30 to 35 days reported by this author. The most varying traits noted were consisted of the pod yield per plant, grain yield per plant and number of pod per plant which are the co mponent of yield. Nevertheless, small variation was observed for the number of days to emergence, number of days to flowering, nu mber of stems 4 weeks after sowing, number of stems 9 weeks after sowing, leaf area, grain length and the grain width. These results infer that there is some level of variability among the Bambara groundnut sampled in term of their yield potential, corroborating with the finding of[22]. Furthermore, th e analysis of variance indicated that there were h ighly significant differences between the genotypes for grain length and width (P<0.01). In the meantime significant differences were observed for the number of stems 4 weeks after sowing suggesting variability in growth rate among the genotypes. The same results appeared for number of pod per plant, pod yield per plant and grain y ield per plant (P<0.05). These variables represent 60% of the total trait considered in this study and the findings deduced the importance of these descriptors for the need of differentiations among Bambara groundnut landraces. The observations are consistent with the past results fro m[23]. However, no differences were revealed for the fo llo wing traits: nu mber o f days to emergence, number of days to flowering, leaf area and number of stem at 9 weeks after sowing. The principal component analysis grouped the ten variables into various components with the first four co mponents explaining close to 80% o f the total variat ion observed (Table 3). Table 2. Descriptive Statistics Summary of the Morphological Traits measured Ch aract ers Number of daysto emerge Number of daysto flowering Number of St ems 4WAS Number of St ems 9WAS Leaf Area (cm2) Grain Length (cm) Grain Width (cm) Number of Pod Per Plant Pod Yield (g/plant) Grain Yield (g/plant) Observations Minimum Maximum Mean Values SD 20 9.00 10.25 9.44ns 0.36 20 42.00 45.33 43.77ns 0.92 20 12.25 17.25 14.64* 1.44 20 16.00 24.45 20.59ns 2.36 20 10.25 17.40 13.96ns 1.76 20 9.36 15.62 12.13** 1.60 20 8.33 12.03 10.34** 1.02 20 2.75 11.67 5.15* 2.23 20 1.29 7.00 2.98* 1.34 20 0.86 4.24 1.80* 0.84 CV (%) 3.83 2.11 9.83 11.46 12.62 13.18 9.90 43.37 46.56 45.00 SD: Standard deviation; CV: Coeffi cient of variation; ns: non-significant differences were observed among the means; *: significant differences were observed among the mean (P<0.05); **: highly significant differences were observed among the means (P<0.01) 42 Sobda Gonnéet al.: Assessment of Twenty Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdcourt) Landraces using Quantitative M orphological Traits Table 3. Principal Component Analysis of the Genotypes showing the first four Components Eigenvalue Variability (%) Cumulative % P C1 2.998 29.980 29.980 Eigenvectors PC2 PC3 2.138 1.692 21.376 16.925 51.356 68.280 P C4 1.126 11.264 79.544 Table 4. Eigen Vectors and Values for the first four Principal Component axes Ch aract ers Number of daysto emerge Number of daysto flowering Number of Petioles 4WAS Number of Petioles 9WAS Leaf Area (cm2) Grain Length (cm) Grain Width (cm) Number of Pod Per Plant Pod Yield (g/plant) Grain Yield (g/plant) P C1 0.105 -0.069 -0.052 -0.140 0.126 0.076 0.113 0.544 0.562 0.561 Eigenvectors PC2 PC3 0.318 -0.417 -0.269 0.037 0.424 -0.376 0.461 -0.210 0.323 -0.145 0.417 0.536 0.382 0.567 -0.065 -0.035 -0.078 -0.046 -0.003 -0.079 P C4 0.284 0.463 -0.142 -0.378 0.697 -0.050 0.141 -0.124 -0.026 -0.135 Based on the results from tables 3 and 4, it appeared that the principal co mponent 1 (CP1) accounted for close to 30% of the total va riat ion and the characters responsible for genotypes separation along this axis were the number of pods per plant, pod yield per plant and grain yield per plant which are related to the agronomic traits. Thus PC1 was revealed as the most important features in the selection for yield co mponent in this study ([22];[24]). This result is consistent with[23] stating that the most important components of yield are the number of pods and seeds per plant. The second principal co mponent (PC2) ass ociated with the number of stems at 4WAS and number of stems at 9WAS accounting for 21.38% of the total variation. Principal Co mponent 3 (PC3) accounted for close to 17% of the total variation and d isplayed differences based on the number of days for emergence, the grain length and the grain width. The last principal co mponent (PC4) accounted for 11.26% of the total variation and consisted mostly of the number o f days to flowering and the leaf area which are basically re lated to the phonological traits of the plants. The Hierarchical Cluster Analysis made of the PCA showed from the variance decomposition for optimu m classification that, the twenty landraces are classified into five main classes (Figure 1) displaying 66.20% and 33.80% level o f similarity within class and between classes respectively. The predominant classes noted are C1 and C2 with five members each follo wed by C3 and C4 which was constituted by four members. Finally, C5 was shown with the fewer members of two. The characteristics of the different classes are summarized in table 5. 5 2 1 4 3 Figure 1. Dendrogram showing the five distinctive classes constructed in the base of the quantitative morphological characters estimate d International Journal of Plant Research 2013, 3(3): 39-45 43 Table 5. Means values of the charact ers per class Ch aract ers DEM DFL ST EM 1 ST EM 2 LAR GL GW PPL P YD GYD C1 9.450 43.667 15.033 19.310 14.465 12.180 10.785 5.767 3.348 2.023 C2 9.542 43.694 14.431 21.550 14.097 12.151 10.326 4.486 2.598 1.511 Classes C3 9.167 43.683 13.917 20.617 13.377 12.226 10.024 5.444 3.272 2.081 C4 9.500 44.000 14.688 20.913 13.514 11.764 10.165 4.875 2.784 1.643 C5 9.375 43.875 15.000 20.225 14.054 12.491 10.095 5.667 3.196 1.999 The results from the above table indicate the mean performances of the selections according to each class. Class 1 represented by VZ101, VZ112, VZ114, VZ118 and VZ119 are characterized by large leaves, early flowering and rapid growth and vegetative development; they seemed to be the most yielding genotypes. They showed the best yield co mponents values with large seeds and mostly creamy in color corroborating with[25]. This author reported that, creamy colored are preferred fo r ho me consumption as they are claimed to be tastier[26], consequently such seeds have been favored by farmers when selecting for seeds size. Therefore, seed sizes have been improved over t ime of cu ltivation. The lower stems number (19.31) was observed in this group. This could imply that these genotypes have strategies to limit vegetative growth and compensate it by allocating energy to yield production. Also they could have taken advantages of their large leaves to perform better photosynthesis in favor of pod and grain develop ment resulting fro m mo re assimilates reserve generated during this physiological activity of the plants. Moreover[20] mentioned that the timing for flo wering period is a determinant factor for the final y ield. Thus early flowering may have contributed positively to the best yield of the group. Selection for breeding program of Bambara groundnut could exp lore the accessions fro m this class. In addition, it has been reported that flowering is indeterminate in Bambara groundnut. However, early flowering has been noted as a good agronomic attribute of crops for early maturity, uniformity of yield and crop production in general[27]. Thus lines that flower early should be considered in the production of Bambara groundnut[28]. Class 2 is formed by VZ102, VZ105, VZ115 and VZ120 characterized by the following traits: the smallest pod and grain yield. In contrast they excelled in vegetative growth with h ighest stem nu mber at the end of the Cycle. It was also observed that their seeds took more time (9.54 DAS) to emerge co mpare to the rest of the genotypes. In this group priori seemed to be given to the vegetative development with the detriment of pod and grain production. Class 3 is illustrated by VZ103, VZ107, VZ108, VZ109 and VZ117. These accessions were distinguished by the following characters: earliness in seeds emergence (9.17 DAS), small leaves size, consequently the seeds were s mall and they bear few pod per p lant. The findings contrast the results showed in[20] that pod formation efficiency and number of pod with 2 seeds were obtained from genotypes having reduced leaves area. Class 4 co mprised VZ104, VZ110, VZ111 and VZ116. They were ind ividuals exh ibit ing long cycle by delaying to start flowering and their seeds are the shortest in length. The last class 5, whose members were VZ106 and VZ113 seemed to have long seeds as their most distinctive character. Correlation analysis between characters has been described to be a great value in determining the most efficient procedures for selection of superior agrono mic traits in crops ([29];[30]). Pearson’s correlation coefficients in table 6 showed different types of interrelat ionships between the variables measured and the grain yield. It indicated that there were highly significant positive correlations between grain yield and the yield components principally pod yield (r = 0.97) and number of pods per plant (r = 0.91) suggesting that, these parameters could be used for grain yield predict ion. The observations confirmed the study conducted by[30] who reported a significant and positive correlation between grain weight per plant and the number pod per p lant. In the meantime highly significant positive correlations were found between number of pod per plant and pod yield (r = 0.90) and between grain width and grain length (r = 0.79) likewise to the study from ([30];[31]). A significant and positive correlation appeared between the number o f stems at 4 weeks after sowing and number stems at the end of the crop cycle 9 weeks after sowing (r = 0.56) suggesting the possibility of efficient canopy comparison of the mo rphotypes at mi-cycle of the crop, 4 weeks after sowing. Furthermore, the study revealed positive correlation between the leaf area and the number of days to emergence (r = 0.42). Table 6. Interrelationship analysis among the characters (Pearson correlation matrix) Variables DEM DFL ST EM 1 ST EM 2 LAR GL GW PPL P YD GYD DEM 1 -0.125 0.253 0.282 0.427 0.047 -0.128 0.165 0.074 0.141 DFL 1 -0.176 -0.174 -0.023 -0.160 -0.111 -0.030 -0.039 -0.164 ST EM 1 1 0.563 0.259 -0.049 0.048 -0.129 -0.067 0.018 ST EM 2 1 -0.009 0.255 0.041 -0.154 -0.263 -0.145 LAR 1 0.069 0.275 0.020 0.167 0.135 GL 1 0.791 0.068 0.004 0.056 Values in bold are different from 0 with a significance level alpha=0.05 GW 1 0.079 0.090 0.092 PPL 1 0.909 0.912 P YD 1 0.974 GYD 1 44 Sobda Gonnéet al.: Assessment of Twenty Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdcourt) Landraces using Quantitative M orphological Traits 4. Conclusions Based on the phenological traits, the results revealed that the genotypes were divers but could be grouped into five main classes according to the similarity factors. The earliness of flowering, nu mber of pod per plant, pod and grain yield per p lant were the most discriminant factors, suggesting their consideration when selecting for agronomic superior t raits. Significant correlat ions were shown between number of stems 4WAS and 9WAS (r = 0.56); g rain width and length (r = 0.79); pod yield and nu mber per p lant (r = 0.90); pod yield and grain yield (r = 0.97) and between grain yield and number of pod per plant (r = 0.91) highlighting the importance of these parameters in selection for the improvement of this crop. The quantitative morphological descriptors provided useful information to characterize the Bambara groundnut landraces for their integration in the breeding program. Ho wever, further study should be conduct in field condit ions to complete these findings. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors wish to acknowledge the Regional Centre of Agricultural Research for Development of Maroua, The Higher Institute of Sahel o f Maroua and the Higher Teacher’s Training School of Maroua for their supports to the completing of the present study. REFERENCES [1] L. S. T. Ngamo & T. H. Hance, Diversitéde ravageurs et denrées ; méthodes alternatives de lutte en milieu tropical. In TROPICULTURA, 25(4) : 215-220, 2007 [2] A.M . Oparaeke and J.O. Bunmi, Bioactivity of two podered spices (piper guineense) (Dunal) A. Richard) as home masses insecticides against Callosobruchus subinnotatus (pic) on stored Bambarra groundnut. In: A gricultura tropical et subtropical, 39(2) pp 132-133, 2006 [3] FAO Stat Database. http//, 2013 [4] Yao Djè., S. Beket, Bonny, A. Iriéand Zoro Bi, «Observation préliminaire de la variabilitéentre quelques morphotypes de voandzou (Vigna subterranea L. Verde ; Fabaceae) de Cote d’Ivoire», Biotechn, Agron. Soc. 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