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Effects of light intensity on growth and yield of local rice variety ADA in Nigeria

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https://www.eduzhai.net International Journal of Plant Research 2014, 4(4): 89-94 DOI: 10.5923/j.plant.20140404.01 Effect of Light Intensity on Growth and Yield of a Nigerian Local Rice Variety-Ofada Gbadamosi A. Emmanuel*, Daniel M. Mary Department of Plant Science & Biotechnology, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko, Ondo State, Nigeria Abstract Rice is an important staple food in Nigeria but production is low due to single cropping season among other factors. The effect of light regimes on the growth and yield of Ofada rice (Oryzasativa L) was studied. Seeds were collected from Igbemo-Ekiti, Nigeria (lat7° 42'E and long 5° 24'N). They were pre-treated by soaking in water for 24 hours and sown in germinating trays filled with top-soil and watered regularly. A total of four troughs each with dimension of 2.5m x 1m x 0.25m were filled with top soil and flooded. Three seedlings hill-1 were transplanted at 20cm x 20cm spacing. Two days later, the troughs were covered with one, two and three layers of green coloured fine mesh net to achieved 75%, 50% and 25% light intensity respectively. The fourth trough (control) with no covering had 100% light intensity. Five hills from each trough were randomly selected and measurements of height and number of tillers were taken at 25 and 45 days after transplanting. Growth and yield parameters such as plant heights (PH), total number of tillers per plant (TNOT), number of effective tillers (EFT), flag leaf length (FLL), panicle length (PANL), panicle weight (PANW), number of grain per panicle (NOG/P), number of spikelet per panicle (NSPP), number of filled and unfilled grain, 1000 grain weight (1000-GW), economic yield (EW), straw weight (SW) and harvest index (HI) were assessed. There were significant differences in PH, TNOT, EFT, number of unfilled grain per panicle, PANW, 1000-GW, HI, EY and BY. Plant height, TNOT, EFT, 1000-GW, EY increased with increasing light intensity while number of unproductive tillers increased with reduced light. Ofada is recommended for planting under full light intensity but there are potentials for breeding for shade tolerance in the variety. Keywords Ofada, Shade tolerance, Double-cropping, Yield, Tillers 1. Introduction Rice (Oryzasativa L.) is the world’s second most important cereal crop, belonging to the family Gramineae. Rice provides 75% calories and 55% proteins to the average daily diet of consumers [1] and contributes tremendously to the economies of many nations. In Nigeria, rice is grown on approximately 3.7 million hectares of land covering 10.6 percent of the 35 million hectares of land under cultivation, out of a total arable land area of 70million hectares [2]. The rice varieties grown in Nigeria shows significant diversity, the common local varieties include: Dias, Santana, Ashawa, Yarsawaba, Ofada, Abakaliki and Yarkuwa; and the enhanced varieties of traditional African rice such as NERICA [3]. Of the large array of staple food crops grown in Nigeria-cereals, legumes, tubers, vegetables and othersmade possible by the diversity of agro-ecological production systems, rice has risen to a position of pre-eminence ranking fourth most consumed crop in terms of calories. There is a * Corresponding author: gbadamosialabae@hotmail.com (Gbadamosi A. Emmanuel) Published online at https://www.eduzhai.net Copyright © 2014 Scientific & Academic Publishing. All Rights Reserved steady increase in the consumption of rice due to urbanization, changes in employment patterns and life style among other factors. Domestic production has never been able to meet the demand, leading to considerable imports; presently, Nigeria spends US$ 4billion annually on importing rice [4]. There is an urgent need to boost the cultivation of local rice variety so as to reduce the rate of rice importation. The role of environmental factors in rice production cannot be overemphasized. There are diverse environmental factors that affect rice production; growth and yield, among them are sunlight, drought, and temperature. Growth of autotropic plants is directly and dramatically influenced by light intensity (i.e. quantum flux density) which is the driving force of photosynthesis and provides nearly all of the carbon and chemical energy needed for plant growth [5]. In addition, [6] opined that increased light intensity improved rice yield till plant reaches its light saturation. Furthermore, light intensity is among important requirements for plant growth, development, survival, and crop productivity [7]. Because of the difficulty of controlling light intensity [8], researchers have evaluated the effects of variation in light regimes on morphological characteristics, physiological characteristics, yield, and quality of agricultural crops. In order to boast the cultivation of rice in Nigeria, it is 90 Gbadamosi A. Emmanuel et al.: Effect of Light Intensity on Growth and Yield of a Nigerian Local Rice Variety-Ofada pertinent to determine the appropriate light regimes that favour growth and yield of local varieties. [9] observed 10% lower paddy yield of rice plant in shaded plot with 78% of full solar radiation than un-shaded plot with100% solar radiation. Shade has pronounced effect on the growth of rice. It tends to increase plant height, decrease tiller and panicle number hill-1 and grains panicle-1 and decrease grain yield. Shade stimulates cellular expansion and rapid cell division resulting in increased leaf length and plant height [10]. Rice cultivars adapted to various geographical conditions differ in their light requirements. Cultivars that are traditionally being in the tropics are supposed to have greater tolerance for low-light stress than recently introduced cultivars. Thus, identification of such rice cultivar will be essential in developing high-yielding varieties that can survive in low-radiation condition during the wet season; subsequently, enable double cropping per year. Therefore, this present study was carried out in order to examine the effect of light intensity regime on the growth and yield of local Nigerian rice as a prelude to breeding for short rotation variety. 2. Materials and Method The seeds of Ofada Rice (Oryzasativa L) collected from farmers at Igbemo, Ekiti State, Nigeria (lat7° 42' and long 5° 24'N). The open nursery of the Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba Akoko, Nigeria was used as the experimental site. The seeds were soaked in cold water at room temperature for 24 hours and thereafter, the soaked seeds were kept in a jute bag for 24 hours after the seeds were allowed to get dried of the imbibed water. The seeds of Ofada rice were sown in germination trays containing top soils, germination of the sprouted seeds was observed for 18 days and the seeds were watered twice daily. A total of four troughs having the dimension of 2.5m x 1m x 0.25m filled with top soil were used for the experiment. The troughs were flooded for two days to allow the water to soak in at an overlaying excess water height of 10cm above the soil. Three seedlings hill-1 were transplanted to each of the troughs at 20cm x 20cm spacing. Two days after transplanting (DATP), one trough was covered with one layer of green coloured fine mesh net to achieved 75% light intensity, another set of the trough was covered with two layers of net to achieved 50% light intensity, while the third one was covered with three layers of net to obtain 25% illumination. The fourth trough (control) with no covering had 100% light intensity. Urea fertilizer was applied to each of the four troughs once after 8 weeks of transplanting at the rate of 25g per trough. Hand weeding of troughs were carried out fortnightly and watering was done twice (morning and evening) daily. At 3 months after transplanting, a light-meter was used to take the light intensity three times daily at 08.00, 14.00 and 18.00hrs respectively. 2.1. Assessment of Growth and Yield Parameters Growth parameters such as number of tillers per plant (TNOT), plant heights (PH), length of flag leaf (FLL), number of effective tillers/productive tillers (EFF), panicle length (PANL), panicle weight (PANW), number of grain per panicle, number of spikelet per panicle (NSPP), number of filled and unfilled grain (NFGP/NUFGP), 1000 grain weight, economic yield (EY), straw weight and harvest index were assessed. Plant height was measured from the base of the plant to the tip of the highest leaf of each seedling by using a meter rule calibrated in centimetres. The number of tillers on each seedling was counted. Length of flag leaf was taken by measuring the last leaf to panicle from the selected plant in each trough using a ruler calibrated in centimetres. Panicle length was measured with centimetre ruler. Panicle weight was measured by using weighing balance. The number of spikelets on each panicle was counted and the numbers recorded. To determine the number of filled and unfilled grain; the grains were separated and the number of filled grain and unfilled grain were counted separately. To obtain 1000 grain weight, 1000 seeds were counted and weighed for each treatment. The Economic yield was determined by weighing the total number of grains per plant; and the data recorded. To evaluate the straw weight, rice straw was carefully uprooted and placed in a bowl containing water to remove the soil around the roots. The washed root was oven dried for 48 hours at 50oC. Dried straw was then removed to weigh using a weighing balance. The HI was computed the following formula: Harvest index (HI) = Economic yield Biological yield 2.2. Statistical Analysis The data obtained for the growth parameters were statistically analysed using the analysis of variance (ANOVA) procedure of SAS 9.2 software package and the means of the shoot length, collar diameter and number of leaves were tested using Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT). 3. Results 3.1. Plant Height There were significant (P≤0.05) differences in plant height among the light treatments (Table 1). At 45days after transplanting (DAT), the highest mean height value of 33.46cm ± 1.66 was obtained in plants under 25% of light intensity, was followed by plant under 50% light intensity with a mean value of 31.06cm ± 0.33, while the lowest mean value of 26.22cm ± 3.10cm was obtained in plant under 100% full light intensity (Table 2). International Journal of Plant Research 2014, 4(4): 89-94 91 Table 1. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) for growth and yield traits in Ofada rice grown under different light intensity Parameter TNOT EFT TWP PANL PANW FLL PH NSPP NFGP NUFGP 1000-GW EY BY SV Treatment Error Sum Treatment Error Sum Treatment Error Sum Treatment Error Sum Treatment Error Sum Treatment Error Sum Treatment Error Sum Treatment Error Sum Treatment Error Sum Treatment Error Sum Treatment Error Sum Treatment Error Sum Treatment Error Sum SS 219.200 96.000 315.200 277.750 80.800 358.550 5.750 11.200 16.950 31.628 89.408 121.037 29.374 10.099 39.473 175.522 518.217 693.739 146.674 259.044 405.718 1078.842 6540.531 7619.374 799.366 13444.055 14243.421 4162.816 7804.054 11966.870 50.646 38.812 89.458 786.294 33.509 819.803 1714.281 2869.024 4583.306 DF MS 3 16 73.067 19 6.000 3 16 92.583 19 5.050 3 16 1.917 19 0.700 3 16 10.543 19 5.588 3 16 9.791 19 0.631 3 16 58.507 19 32.389 3 16 19 48.891 16.190 F value 12.178* 18.333* 2.738 1.887 15.512* 1.806 3.020* 3 16 19 359.614 408.783 0.880 3 16 19 266.455 840.253 3 16 13877.605 19 487.753 0.317 2.845* 3 16 16.882 19 2.426 6.959* 3 16 262.098 125.149* 19 2.094 3 16 571.427 19 179.314 3.187 p-level 0.000 0.000 0.078 0.173 0.000 0.187 0.187 0.472 0.813 0.071 0.003 0.000 0.052 HI Treatment Error Sum 0.082 0.180 0.262 3 16 19 0.027 0.011 2.430 0.103 TNOT- Total Number of Tillers; EFT-Number of Effective Tillers; TWP- Tillers Without Panicles; PANL- Panicle Length; PANW- Panicle Weight; FLL- Flag leaf Length; PH-Plant height; NSPP- Number of Spikelet per Panicle; NFGP-Number of Filled Grains per Panicle; NUFGP- Number of Unfilled Grain per Panicle; 1000-GW- Grain Weight of 1000grains; EY-Economic Yield; BY-Biological Yield; HI-Harvest Index. 92 Gbadamosi A. Emmanuel et al.: Effect of Light Intensity on Growth and Yield of a Nigerian Local Rice Variety-Ofada Table 2. Means values with standard error of growth and yield characters of Ofadarice grown under different light intensities Parameters Different light intensity exposures (%) 100 75 50 25 PH (cm) FLL (cm) TNOT EFT TWP PANL (cm) PANW (g) NSPP NFGP NUFGP 1000-GW EY (t/ha) BY (t/ha) HI (%) 26.2±3.10a 31.55±2.37a 18.80± 1.88b 17.80±1.74c 1.00±0.32a 24.72±095a 2.65±0.20a 8.19±0.19a 118.43±19.88a 39.74±16.49ab 28.14±0.71b 33.75±0.66c 71.88±9.83b 0.52±0.08ab 28.56±0.71ab 31.45±1.36a 11.20±0.37b 11.20±0.37b 1.20±0.20a 24.72±0.93a 3.65±0.40ab 26.05±17.94a 101.46±9.69a 60.3±8.80ab 27.54±0.91b 27.58±1.02b 53.08±2.09ab 0.54±0.02b 31.06±0.33ab 34.11±2.75a 11.20±0.58a 9.60±0.25ab 1.60±0.40ab 27.41±0.70a 5.96±0.35c 10.84±2.22a 106.36±3.10a 31.20±3.02a 26.70±0.68b 25.75±0.44b 58.80±3.61a 0.44±0.02ab 33.46±1.66b 38.75±3.29a 10.40±2.07a 8.00±0.89a 2.40±0.51b 24.54±1.48a 4.49±0.43b 8.69±0.44a 105.64±13.17a 66.40±5.63b 23.98±0.39a 16.25±0.01a 46.78±43a 0.38±0.04a a,b,c, = means bearing the same letters in the row are not significantly different at 5% probability level. 3.2. Total Number of Tillers There were significant (P≤ 0.05) differences in total number of tillers (TNOT) among the light treatments (Table 1). The highest mean TNOT value of 18.80 ± 1.88 was recorded in plants under 100% full light intensity. This was followed by plants under 75% light intensity with a mean tiller value of 12.40 ± 0.25 while the lowest mean TNOT value of 10.4 ± 22.07 was obtained in plants under 25% light intensity. The mean TNOT of plants under 100% full light intensity was significantly different from those under 75%, 50%, and 25% light intensities (Table 2). 3.3. Number of Effective Tillers Highly significant (P≤0.05) differences were observed in the number of effective tillers (EFT) per hill among plants under different light regimes (Table 1). The highest mean EFT of 17.80 ± 1.74 was observed in plants under 100% full light intensity, this was followed by plant under 75% light intensity with a mean value of 11.20 ± 0.37, while the lowest mean EFT of 8.00 ± 0.89 was obtained under 25% light intensity. The mean EFT of plant under 100% full light intensity was significantly (P≤0.05) different from those under other light regimes (Table 2). 3.4. Tillers without Panicle/Unproductive Tillers There were no significant (P≥0.05) differences in number of tillers without panicle (TWP) under the different light regimes (Table 1). Table 2 showed that tillers without panicle plants under 25% light intensity had the highest mean number of unproductive tillers (2.40 ± 0.51), this was followed by plants under 50% light treatment with a mean TWP value of 1.60 ± 0.40, while the lowest mean TWP of 1.00 ± 0.32 was recorded under 100% full light intensity (Table 2). The mean TWP under 25% light regime was significantly (P≤ 0.05) different from those under 75% and 100% light intensities. 3.5. Flag Leaf Length There were no significant differences in flag leaf length (FLL) in plants under the different light regimes (Table 1). The highest mean FLL value of 38.75cm±3.29 was recorded in plants under 25% light intensity, this was followed by plant under 50% light intensity of 34.11cm ± 2.75, while the lowest mean FLL value of 31.45 ± 1.36 was obtained under plants grown under 75% light intensity. There were no significant (P≤ 0.05) differences in mean FLL among the plants under different treatments (Table 2). 3.6. Panicle Length (cm) Panicle length (PANL) was not significantly (P≥ 0.05) affected by different light regimes (Table 1). The highest mean PANL value of 27.41cm ± 0.70 was recorded in plants under 50% light intensity, 24.72 ± 0.95cm was obtained under 100% light intensity while the lowest mean value of 24.31cm ± 0.93 was recorded in plants under 75% light intensity. The mean PANL of rice were not significantly different under the light regimes (Table 2). 3.7. Number of Spikelet per Panicle The number of spikelet per panicle (NSPP) was not significantly (P≤ 0.05) affected by light regimes (Table 1). The highest mean NSPP value of 26.05 ± 17.94 was recorded in plants under 75% light intensity followed by plants under 50% light intensity with a mean value of 10.84 ± 2.22, while the lowest mean NSPP value of 8.19 ± 0.19 was recorded for plant under 100% light. There were no International Journal of Plant Research 2014, 4(4): 89-94 93 significant (P≤ 0.05) differences in mean NSPP among the treatments (Table 2). 3.8. Number of Filled Grains per Panicle Effect of shading was not significant (P≤ 0.05) on the number of filled grain per panicle (NFGP) in rice (Table 1). The highest mean NFGP (118.43 ± 19.88) was obtained in plants under full light, this was followed by plants under 50% light with a mean value of 106.36 ± 3.10. The lowest value of 101.46 ± 9.69 was recorded in plants under 75% light intensity. There were no significant (P≤ 0.05) differences in mean NFGP under different light intensities (Table 2). 3.9. Number of Unfilled Grain per Panicle The effect of different light intensities were significant (P≤ 0.05) on the number of unfilled grain per panicle (NUFGP) (Table 1). Plants under 25% light had the highest mean NUFGP of 66.40±5.63, those under 75% light had a mean NUFGP of 60.31 ± 8.80 while the lowest mean NUFGP value of 31.20 ± 3.02 was obtained in plants under 50% light intensity. The mean NUFGP for plant under 50% light was significantly (P≤ 0.05) different from those under 25% light regime (Table 2). 3.10. Panicle Weight (g) There were significant differences (P≤0.05) in panicle weight (PANW) under different light intensities (Table 1). The highest mean PANW value of 5.96g ± 0.35 was recorded in plants under 50% light intensity, plants under 25% light had a mean value of 4.49g ± 0.43 while the lowest mean PANW value of 2.65g± 0.20 was recorded in plants under 100% light intensity. The mean PANW of plants under 50% shading was significantly (P≤0.05) different from those under other light regimes (Table 2). 3.11. Harvest Index (%) There were significant (P≤ 0.05) differences in harvest index (HI) of rice under different light regimes (Table 1). Harvest index was highest in plants under 75% light with a mean value of 0.54 ± 0.02, plants under full light had a mean value of 0.52 ± 0.08 while the lowest value of 0.38 ± 0.04 was obtained in plants under 25% light intensity. The mean HI of plants under 75% light was different from those under 25% light regime (Table 2). 3.12. Grain Weight (1000) The weight of 1000 grains of rice were significantly (P≤0.05) different under different light regimes (Table 1). Plants under full light had the highest mean value of 28.14g ± 0.71, plants under 75% light regime had a mean value of 27.58g ± 1.20. The lowest mean value of 23.98 ± 0.01 was obtained in plants under 25% light. The mean weight of 1000grains of rice grown under 25% light regime was significantly different from those grown under other regimes of light (Table 2). 3.13. Economic Yield (t/ha) The effect of light regime was significant (P≤0.05) on the economic yield (EY) of rice (Table 1). Rice grown under full light had the highest mean EY value of 33.75 ± 0.66; this was followed by plants grown under 75% light intensity with a mean value of 27.58 ± 2.09 while the lowest value of 16.25 ± 0.01 was obtained in plants grown under 25% light. The mean EY of plants grown under full light was significantly (P≤0.05) different from those under 25%, 50% and 75% light regimes (Table 2). 3.14. Biological Yield (t/ha) Biological yield (BY) of rice were significantly (P≤0.05) affected by different light regimes (Table 1). Biological yield was highest in plants grown under full light (71.88g ± 9.83), this was followed by plants grown in 50% light with a mean value of 58.80g ± 3.61 while the lowest value was obtained plants grown under 25% light. The mean BY of plants grown under full light was significantly different from that of plants grown under 25% light intensity (Table 2). 4. Discussion and Conclusions The result of this study indicated there are several indices in the cultivation and management of the local rice varietyOfada that could be improved. Plant height decreased with increasing light intensity; this is encouraging because tall rice stems make them susceptible to lodging consequently heavy harvest losses. Also, plants grown in the dark or in very weak light have delicate, soft and slender stem since they continue in rapid growth and elongate, looking for light untill they reach their maximum dimension and bend toward light direction. A condition generally referred to as etiolation. Short erect plant type is also an impetus for direct seeding which is often cheaper than transplanting using machines. Rice productivity comes under some influencing indices which are often interdependent. The present study revealed that total number of tillers; and more importantly, number of effective tillers incresed with increasing light intensity; this agreed with the findings of [11] who reported that the numbers of tiller increased in parallel with increases in the level of light intensity.In the same vein, the quantity of harvest is directly related to the number of tillers that produced panicles provided there were no disease or pest incidence. As a corollary to this, number of tillers without panicles increased under reduced light intensity, this is line with the submission of [12] that apart from genotype and hormonal balance, available light to the plant may affect the number of tillers. Rice is cultivated mainly for its edible grains of which size and weight are crucial; the presently study revealed that both the grain weight and the economic yield increased under increasing light intensity. This agreed with the findings of several authors that low irradiance treatment significantly diminish grain yield ([13-16]). Rice is an international crop which global production and 94 Gbadamosi A. Emmanuel et al.: Effect of Light Intensity on Growth and Yield of a Nigerian Local Rice Variety-Ofada consumption affects the economy and food security status of [7] Wang, L., Deng, F., Ren, W.J., and Yang, W.Y., 2013, Effects many countries; there is therefore the need to stimulate production is areas with potentials for high productivity. Meanwhile, farming in sub-Saharan Africa is mostly rain-fed; of Shading on Starch Pasting Characteristics of Indica Hybrid Rice (Oryzasativa L.). PLoS ONE 8(7): e68220. doi:10.1371/ journal.pone.0068220use. the period of heavy rainfall with its attendant low irradiance usually coincides with the crucial time of booting and grain filling in rice. It is therefore recommended that appropriate irrigation facilities should be developed especially in Nigeria [8] Wang, H., Wang, F.L., Wang, G., and Majourhat, K., 2007, The responses of photosynthetic capacity, chlorophyll fluorescence and chlorophyll content of nectarine (Prunuspersicavar. Nectarinamaxim) to greenhouse and field grown conditions. SciHortic 112: 66–72. to enable double-cropping in a year, thus, enhancing the yield of local variety like Ofada which performs better under high light intensity prevalent during the dry weather conditions. [9] Nandy, P., Paul, S.P., Moula, M.G., Imam, M.F., Basak, S.R., Mian, M.A.Q. and Mannan, M.A., 2003, Stakeholder analysis through participatory rural appraisal for land use and joint forest management in raised coastal areas. PRA Bull. P. 58. REFERENCES [1] Bhuiyan, N.I., Paul, D.N.R., and Jabber, M.A., 2002, Feeding the extra illions by 2025-Challenges for rice research and extention in Bangladesh. A keynote paper of National workshop on rice research and extension. BRRI, Gazipur. January 29-31. 26pp. [2] Cadoni, P., and Angelucci, F., 2013, Analysis of incentives and disincentives for rice in Nigeria. Technical notes series, MAFAP, FAO, Rome. 42pp. [3] Bayou farms and Industries limited. Rice value chain development plan, Kaduna rice industry supply chain development programme, submitted to MSME Nigeria, April 2009. [4] Cable News, 2014, Nigeria spends $4 billion annually on rice importation. www.thecable.ng. [5] Bjorkman, O., 1981, Responses to different quantum. In: Physiological Plant Ecology (O.L. Lange, P.S. Nobel, C.B. Osmand and H. Zioglor, eds.). Part I. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, others. New York. p. 57-107. [6] Hanganter, R. P., 1997, Gravity, light and plant form. Plant Cell and Environment 20: 796-800. [10] Schoch, P.G., 1972, Effect of shading on stuctural characteristics of the leaf and yield of fruit in Capsicum annum. J. Amer. Soc Hort. Sci. 97 (4); 461-464. [11] Aumonde, T. Z. Peds, T., Borella, J., Amarante, L., and Villela F. A., 2013, Seed vigor, antioxidant metabolism and initial growth characteristics of red rice seedlings under different light intensities. Acta.Bot. Bras. 27 (2): [12] Valerio, O.P., Carvalho, F.I.F., Oliveria, A.C., Benin, G., Maia, L.C., Silva, J.A.G., Schmidt, D.M., and Silveira, G., 2009, Factoresrelacionados a produca o e desenvolvimenta de afillosemtrigo. Semina: CienciasAgarias 30: 1207-1218. [13] Sunilkumar, B. and Geethakumari, V.I., 2002, Shade response of upland rice cultivars (Oryza sativa L.) as influenced by silica application. Journal of Tropical Agriculture 40: 67-70. [14] Singh, S., 2005, Effect of low-light stress at various growth phases on yield components of two rice cultivars. IRRN 30(2): 36-37. [15] Moula, M.G., 2009, Effect of shade on yield of rice crops. Pakistan J. Agric. Res. 22(1-2): 24-27. [16] Restrepo, H., and Garces, G., 2013, Evalution of low light intensity at three phonological stages in the agronomic and physiological responses of two rice (Oryzasativa L.) cultivars. Agronomia Colombiana 31(2):

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