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Study on the optimum phosphorus requirement of large gill golden turtle with pure feed

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  • Save International Journal of A griculture and Forestry 2012, 2(5): 195-198 DOI: 10.5923/j.ijaf.20120205.01 Optimum Phosphorus Requirement of Heterobranchus Bidorsalis Using Purified Diets Adebayo Israel Adekunle Department of Forestry, Wildlife and Fisheries M anagement, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State, Niger ia Abstract The d ietary phosphorus requirement o f Heterobranchus bidorsalis fingerlings was investigated by feeding six purified diets containing varying levels of phosphorus inclusion within a range of 0.4 to 1.8% and control using casein and gelatin as dietary protein sources and dextrin as energy source over a 56 day feeding period. The experiment was conducted in a static rearing system consisting of 12 plastic aquaria of 70L capacity. Each aquarium was stocked with 10 fingerlings of Heterobranchus bidorsalis with init ial mean weight of 3.33+ 0.02 g/fish. Each treat ment had two rep licates and fish were fed twice daily to satiation. The results of the study showed that the Mean Weight Gain (MW G) and Specific Growth Rate (SGR) were significantly h ighest (4.87±0.14; 1.71 ± 0.02) respectively at 0.7%P inclusion level. The Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) and Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) among treatments ranged between 1.10±0.05 - 2.80±0.01 and 1.20±0.0 – 2.70+0.14 respectively. Whole body calciu m and phosphorus were significantly (p< 0.05) h ighest (6.54+0.01g; 2.75 +0.01g) respectively in fish fed diet with 1.8%P. That showed that body mineralizat ion continue beyond the requirement for optimal gro wth. Based on observed growth performance, it could be stated that the dietary phosphorus requirement of Heterobranchus bidorsalis fingerlings was 0.7%P. Keywords Gro wth Performance, Body Mineralizat ion, Catfish, Fingerlings 1. Introduction It has been reported clea rly that there is dietary need for 22 minerals in one or more animals’ species (McDowell, 2003). Fish require a dietary source of phosphorus to meet their relatively h igh metabolic requirements because level of dissolved phosphorus in natural waters is relatively low. The dietary require ment for phosphorus ranges between 0.45 -1% (Bury et al, 2003). Appro ximately 85% to 90% of the phosphorus in fish is in bone and scales. Unlike calciu m which can be gotten fro m the surroundings fresh water, phosphorus has to come fro m food, because freshwater is deficient in Phosphate (Goda, 2007). (De Silva 1999) stated that inability of aquatic animal to absorb inorganic elements fro m their external surrounding is one of the major problems among many factors in deciding the mineral requirements quantitatively. There is a general problem encountered in mineral nutrit ion research such as formulat ing minerals-free-d iet and overcoming tissues stores of minerals. Feed management determines the viability of aquaculture as its accounts for at least 60percent of the cost of fish production. * Corresponding author: (Adebayo Israel Adekunle) Published online at Copyright © 2012 Scientific & Academic Publishing. All Rights Reserved Many features influence phosphorus requirement of fish (Lall, 2003). According to Adriano and Shin, (2004), almost 80% o f phosphorus in the body of fishes are in the bones and other skeletal structures. It is expected that Heterobranchus bidorsalis would be in high need of phosphorus for metabolic act ivities because of its fast growth and weight at maturity. In addition, due to the low concentration of phosphorus in natural water, the absorption of significant amount of phosphorus from fresh water is unlikely making a d ietary source of phosphorus potentially mo re crit ical. Developing nutrition strategies such as the use of inorganic phosphorus to complement natural source will make nutrients mo re available to the fish. In determin ing the inorganic minerals source to fish, phosphorus availability is important. In order to balance the available nutrient in the diet, addition of mineral(s) to the feed is required. Therefore, the object ives of this study were to establish optimu m phosphorus requirement for Heterobranchus bidorsalis using purified diets and the effect on mineral co mposition of the fish carcass. 2. Materials and Method 2.1. Experi mental Diet Preparation Six experimental diets were formulated fro m the 196 Adebayo Israel Adekunle: Optimum Phosphorus Requirement of Heterobranchus Bidorsalis Using Purified Diets combination of Casein, Gelatin, Dext rin, Cod Liver oil, Vitamin premix, starch and CaHPO4 to contain diverse percentage of phosphorus (0, 0.4, 0.7, 1.0, 1.4, 1.8) by replacing starch with CaHPO4. The supplementation levels were confirmed by analysis. Crude protein in all diets was designed to be 40% which have been shown to support the optimal gro wth of Heterobranchus bidorsalis fingerlings. Ingredients were mixed in a Hobart mixer according to (AOAC, 2000) methods and then palletized to 2.5mm diameter and sun dried until mo isture was <11.30%. Dry pellets were placed in sealed plastic bags and stored at -20℃ prior to use. Total phosphorus was determined with the mo lybdovanadate method (AOAC, 1995). 2.2. Experi mental Diets The feed ingredients used for the formulat ion of each d iet were purchased from a reliable sales outlet in Lagos, Nigeria. The prepared diets used for the experiment were d ivided into six treat ments. The formulat ion of prepared diets was done in such a way that it gave 40% crude protein. Treatment 1 (T1), Control diet, 0% P inclusion level Treatment 2 (T2), 0.4%P inclusion level Treatment 3 (T3), 0.7%P inclusion level Treatment 4 (T4), 1 %P inclusion level Treatment 5 (T5), 1.4% P inclusion level Treatment 6 (T6), 1.8% P inclusion level 2.3. Experi mental Fish The experimental fish for this study Heterobranchus bidorsalis, with average initial mean weight of (3.33.00 + 0.10) g/fish were obtained fro m Success Fish Breeding Farms, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria. 2.4. Experi mental Procedure 2.5. Area of Analysis The fish samples (whole body) before and after the experiment and the six diets were analy zed for their gross and proximate co mpositions as described by (AOAC, 2000) meth o d s . 2.6. Mineral Anal ysis The six experimental d iets, fish carcass were analy zed for phosphorus content according to AOAC (1995) methods. 2.7. Growth Parameters The following growth parameters were estimated. Mean weight gain (MW G) g = W2 – W1 Where W1 = is the init ial mean weight of fish at the beginning of the experiment (T1) W2 = Final mean weight of fish at day 56 (T2) Specific growth rate (SGR) (%day) = (LogeWt – LogeWi)/ T x 100 Where: Wt is we ight of the fish at time t Wi is weight of the fish at time 0 T is the culture period in days Feed conversion Ration (FCR): Total dry feed fed (g) Total we ight gain (g) 2.8. Statistical Analysis Data (mean weight gain, SGR, FCR) resulting fro m the experiment were subjected to analysis of variance (A NOVA ) using completely randomized design. Individual (samp le means) difference (P < 0.05) among treat ment means were separated using Duncan’s mult iple range test. 3.Results The experiment was carried out in a plastic tank 70cmx45cmx30cm each of which was of a static rearing system. It was an artificial confinement where natural food was absent. Fish were acclimatized for a week, and later replicated twice for each treatment. Fish were fed twice daily for the period of the experiment. The exchange of water was by siphoning. 3.1. The Gross and Proxi mate Composition of the Experi mental Diet The gross and proximate co mposition of the experimental diets is presented in table 1 below. The values for crude protein, ether ext racts, ash, crude fibre, nitrogen free extract and different phosphorus inclusion level were also reported Table 1. Gross and proximate composition of Experimental Diets In gredient s Casein % Gelat in % Dextrin% Cold liver oil % Vitamin remix % Starch % Dicalcium phosphate (CaHP04) % % total Proximate Analysis % Moisture content % Crude Protein % Ether Extract % Ash %CHO TotalPhosphorus (%) T1 30 10 35 10 5 10 0 100 11.26 40.13 5.91 4.13 38.57 0 T2 T3 T4 30 30 30 10 10 10 35 35 35 10 10 10 5 5 5 8 6 4 2 4 6 100 100 100 11.25 40.11 5.93 4.18 38.53 0.4 11.23 40.12 5.90 4.21 38.54 0.7 11.23 40.10 5.91 4.26 38.50 1.0 T5 30 10 35 10 5 2 3 100 11.28 40.12 5.91 4.30 38.39 1.4 T6 30 10 35 10 5 0 10 100 11.27 40.11 5.90 4.32 38.40 1.8 T1 –T6 = Treatment s International Journal of A griculture and Forestry 2012, 2(5): 195-198 197 Table 2. The proximat e composit ion of whole body of Heterobranchus bidorsalis fingerlings fed diet s containing different phosphorus content Composition (%) Mo ist ure Prot ein Lipid Ash T1 10.45+0.04 75.19+0.02 4.58+0.10 10.96+0.06 T2 10.35+0.05 75.91+0.01 5.30+0.05 12.40+0.02 T3 10.77+0.05 79.81+0.01 4.71+0.04 12.46+0.01 T4 10.87+0.02 76.33+0.02 4.14+0.03 13.36+0.01 T5 9.02+0.03 75.32+0.01 2.68+0.02 15.41+0.02 T6 10.10+0.04 75.25+0.03 2.60+0.04 15.56+0.05 Table 3. Growth performance of Heterobranchus bidorsalis fed with experiment diet s for 56 days P aramet ers Initial weight (g) Final weight (g) Mean weight gain (g) SGR FCR PER (T1) 0%P 3.33+ 0.02 6.90a±0.14 3.57b±0.03 1.41bc±0.01 1.79C±0.02 1.83a±0.01 (T2) 0.4%P 3.33 +0.01 7.40b±0.12 4.07c±0.20 1.50c±0.09 1.41b±0.02 1.80c±0.02 Diet s (T3) (T4) 0.7%P 1%P 3.33 +0.03 8.20c±0.20 4.87d±0.14 1.71d±0.02 1.10a±0.05 2.70d±0.14 3.33 +0.01 7.50b±0.14 4.17c±0.11 1.49c±0.01 1.39b±0.02 1.80c±0.12 (T5) 1.4%P 3.33 +0.02 7.10ab±0.11 3.77b±0.02 1.33b±0.01 2.80d±0.01 1.20d±0.01 Means of triplicat e values with similar superscript s are not significant ly different (P >0.05) (T6) 1.8%P 3.33 +0.02 6.70a±0.10 3.37a±0.01 1.11a±0.01 2.50e±0.03 1.40a±0.02 Table 4. Mineral composit ion of Heterobranchus bidorsalis fingerlings fed experiment al diet s with different phosphorus concent rat ion for 56 days (Whole body) Ca (mg/g) P (mg/g) Mg (mg/g) Zn (mg/g) In it ial 4.80+0.01 1.77+0.02 1.64+0.01 0.07+0.01 0%P (T1) 4.89c+0.01 1.83 d+0.01 1.69 c+0.02 0.07 c+0.01 0.4%P (T2) 5.23 c+0.01 2.01 c+0.03 1.71 c+0.02 0.11 c+0.01 0.7%P (T3) 5.63 b+0.01 2.20 c+0.01 3.12 a+0.01 0.11 c+0.02 1%P (T4) 5.96 b+0.04 2.39 b+0.01 3.14 b+0.01 0.12 b+0.02 1.4%P (T5) 6.33 a+0.02 2.60 a+0.01 2.75 b+0.03 0.14a+0.01 Means of triplicat e values with similar superscript s are not significant ly different (P >0.05) 1.8%P (T6) 6.54a+0.01 2.75 a+0.01 2.75 b+0.01 0.15a+0.04 3.2. Growth Performance of the Heterobranchus Bidorsalis Fed with Experimental Diets for 56 days The growth parameters of the fish fed with experimental diets at different inclusion level of dietary phosphorus is presented in table 3 belo w. Fish fed diet 3 (T3) had the highest (p< 0.05) mean weight gain (4.87± 0.14g), followed by fish in treat ment T4 (4.17c±0.11g) and T2 (4.07c±0.20g) respectively. The least growth perfo rmance was recorded in fish fed diet 6 (T6) with 1.8% phosphorus inclusion level. 4. Discussion The present experiment showed that phosphorus supplement significantly imp roved growth and feed efficiency of Heterobranchus bidorsalis fingerlings. The result further indicated that suboptimal levels of dietary phosphorus can negatively affect the growth performance of the fish. The result indicated that phosphorus requirement of Heterobranchus bidorsalis fingerlings is 0.7%. The relative availability of phosphorus varies greatly with fish species, diet composition and form of phosphorus (Schwarz, 1995). Dietary phosphorus requirements ranging from 0.5 to 0.8 percent have been reported for rainbow trout (Ogino and Takeda, 1978). Wilson et al (1982) reported values of 0.42-0.50% phosphorus as the requirement fo r channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), while Andrews et al (1973) reported 1.5%. The diffe rences between these values reported for channel catfish and that from the present study could be attributed to species diffe rences . Reported phosphorus requirements vary fro m about 0.25-1.0% (Chavez-Sanchez et al, 2000) and this range e xpla ins that phosphorus require ment is species specific. The present study also showed fish fed diets without phosphorus supplement had significantly lower Zinc and Magnesium levels in whole body. This indicates dietary phosphorus supplement was necessary for magnesium and zinc deposition. It has also been reported that rainbow trout fed low phosphorus diets had significantly lower magnesium content of whole body and skin (Sugiura et al, 2007). 5. Conclusions Phosphorus is a growth pro moter when supplied at optimal concentration in animal feeds. The result of the feeding trial revealed that the dietary phosphorus level required for maximu m growth of Heterobranchus bidorsalis was 0.7%. The study validated some of the earlier work done on warm water fresh fishes on the use of external sources of phosphorus in fish diets. Under practical situation, it is suggested that inorganic phosphorus should be carefully supplemented to replace the quality lost to pelleting and other forms of feed formu lation. This will p revent malfo rmation often experienced in art ificially raise cat fis h es . It is reco mmended that better knowledge of bioavailability and appropriate indices of to xicity of this mineral in aquatic nutrition will increase its uses as well as addressing major concerns for the negative impact of minerals on aquatic 198 Adebayo Israel Adekunle: Optimum Phosphorus Requirement of Heterobranchus Bidorsalis Using Purified Diets environment. [8] Goda, A.M .A.S. (2007). Effect of dietary soybean meal and phytase levels on growth, feed utilization and phosphorus discharge for Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (L). J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 2: 248 -263 REFERENCES [1] Adriano, E. and Shim, K.F. (2004). Dietary phosphorus requirement of juvenile tiger barb barbus tetrasona (Bleeker, 1855). J. Aquarium Sciences and Conservation. 2, 9 -19 [2] Andrews, J.W., Murai, T., Campbell, C. (1973). Effects of dietary calcium and Phosphorus on growth, food conversion, bone ash and haematocrit levels of catfish. J. Nutr., 103, 766-771 [3] Association of Official Analytical Chemists (1995) Official Methods of Analysis, 16th eds, AOAC, Washington DC, USA [4] AOAC (Association of official Analytical Chemist) (2000) Official method of Analysis. AOAC, Arlington U.S.A [5] Bury N.R., Walker, P.A and Gloves, C.N. (2003). Nutritive metal uptake in teleost fish. J. Exp. Biol. 206: 11 – 23 [6] Chavez-sanchez, C., M artinez-palacios, C.A., M artinez Perez, G., Ross, L.G. (2000). Phosphorus and Calcium requir ements in the diets of the American cichlid Cichlasoma urophthalmus (Gunther). Aquaculture Nutrition, 6, 1-9 [7] De Silva S.S. (1999). Feed Resources and sustainability. In: Sustainable Aquaculture –Food for the Future(ed. By N. Svennevig, H. Reinnertson and M . New). A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, 221-241 [9] Lall, S. P. (2003) M inerals. In: Fish Nutrition (J.E. Halver and R. W. Hardy, eds) Academic Press, San Diego, C.A., U.S.A. Pp. 260 – 308 [10] Ogino, C. and Takeda, H. (1978). Requirements of rainbow trout for dietary calcium and phosphorus. Bull. Jpn. Soc. Sci. Fish., 44:1019-1022 [11] M cDowell, L. R. (2003). M inerals in Animal and Human Nutrition (2nd Edition) [12] Elsevier, Amsterdam, the Netherlands [13] Schwartz, F.J. (1995). Determination of mineral requirement of fish. Journal of Appl ichthyology 11:164-174 [14] Sugiura, S.H., Kelsey, K. and Ferraris, R.P., (2007). M olecular and conventional [15] responses of large rainbow trout to dietary phosphorus restriction. Journal of Comparative Physiology B, 177, 461-472 [16] Wilson, R. P., Robinson, EH; Gatlin 111, OM : Poe, WE (1982). Dietary Phosphorus requirement of channel catfish. J. Nutr., 112, 1197-1202

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