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Impact of human activities on carbon emissions in Chittagong, Bangladesh

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https://www.eduzhai.net/ International Journal of A griculture and Forestry 2013, 3(3): 71-76 DOI: 10.5923/j.ijaf.20130303.01 Effects of Human Induced Activities on Carbon Emission in Chittagong District, Bangladesh Mustainur Rahman1, Monzer Hossain Sarker2,*, Tamanna Hossen2 1USDA funded project “Degradation of upland watershed in Bangladesh”, Institute of Forestry and Environmental Sciences, University of Chittagong, Chittagong-4331, Bangladesh 2Department of Environmental Science, Stamford University Bangladesh Abstract The study was conducted in the Chittagong Division including Hasnabad, Feni, Heyanko, Ichamoti, Chuniti, Fatickchari and Mandakini area. The aims of this study were to find out the effects of deforestation and clear felled effects on carbon sequestration in upland watershed of Bangladesh. So il bulk density was 1.40 g cc-1 in natural forest, 1.52 g cc-1 in clear felled area and 1.33 g cc-1 in deforested land. Mean carbon storage in natural forest was 21.85 t ha-1 of which Hasnabad block, 22.56 t ha-1, Feni b lock 21.76 t ha-1, Heyanko Block 22.17 t ha-1, Ichampti Block 19.80 t ha-1, Chuniti Block 21.17 t ha-1, Fatickchari Block 23.26 t ha-1and Mandakini Block 21.57 t ha-1; in clear felled area mean carbon was 17.67 t ha-1 of which Hasnabad block, 16.68 t ha-1, Feni b lock 20.58 t ha-1, Heyanko Block 14.47 t ha-1 and Ichampti Block 18.92 t ha-1; mean carbon sink in deforested land was 17.71 t ha-1 for Chuniti Block 16.33 t ha-1, Fat ickchari Block 17.67 t ha-1and Mandakini Block 16.33 t ha-1. Keywords Natural Forest, Deforested Land, Bu lk Density, Moisture Content, Carbon Emission, Organic Carbon Stock 1. Introduction Carbon dio xide (CO2) cycles naturally between the atmosphere and the biosphere as a result of photosynthesis, respiration, decomposition and co mbustion. The amount of carbon in an ecosystem changes as it develops and evolves[1]. Carbon is absorbed by water, phytoplankton and vegetation, creating significant stores in the oceans, biomass and soils. Globally, soils contain about three times the amount of carbon in vegetation and twice that in the atmo s p h ere[2, 3]. Hu man activities are changing directly and indirectly the rate of CO2 exchange[2] and the amount of stocks[1] by reducing the capacity of ecosystems to sequester and store CO2 and by producing significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions due to the burn ing o f fossil fuels and to land clearance and deforestation [4]. Agricu lture is the second largest source of greenhouse gases in the UK but emissions in this sector have been declin ing steadily since 1990[5], mainly as a result of changes in agricultural practices, such as redu cin g t he use o f sy nth et ic fert ilizers [6]. Lan d management choices can either maintain or increase the carbon sto re fo r long periods of t ime o r resu lt in n et emissions. Therefore, land use and management choices can have an important ro le in determin ing the amount of carbon * Corresponding author: monzer.hsarker84@gmail.com (Monzer Hossain Sarker) Published online at https://www.eduzhai.net Copyright © 2013 Scientific & Academic Publishing. All Rights Reserved released into the atmosphere or stored in the soil (mit igation) and, as a consequence, in global climate regulation[7, 8]. Land use change, such as deforestation and agricultural intensification, is a major source of global emissions (about 1.8 Gt C yr-1)[2]. There is also increasing evidence that degraded peatlands are a significant source of CO2 emissions[8]. Carbon storage by ma rine and coastal habitats has been less studied than terrestrial stores, but recent evidence[9] indicates that they may be of co mparab le importance to terrestrial stores. In addition to local impacts on ecosystems, deforestation causes global impacts by emitting carbon dio xide and other greenhouse gases that cause climate change. Greenhouse gas emissions from human activ ities have increased to 9 billion ton carbon per year entering the atmosphere at twice the rate at which vegetation and oceans can naturally sequester carbon[10]. The increase in at mospheric carbon dio xide has raised global mean surface temperature 0.7 ± 0.2 ºC in the 20th Century, while continued emissions at current rates could raise global temperatures 1.8–4ºC in the 21th Century[10]. Climate change is damaging ecosystems and human wellbeing by shifting vegetation, increasing wildfire, raising sea level, and intensifying storms[10]. Fossil fuel power plants, vehicles, and cement plants produce approximately 80% of global carbon emissions while deforestation produces approximately 20%[10]. At the same time, deforestation decreases the provision of ecosystem services, including watershed protection and biodiversity conservation. In response, natural resource management agencies and conservation organizations are imp lementing 72 M ustainur Rahman et al.: Effects of Human Induced Activities on Carbon Emission in Chittagong District, Bangladesh forest conservation and reforestation projects to conserve ecosystem functions and to reduce climate change through carbon sequestration. For this reason measurement of carbon storage in soil is very important. Thus this study was launched to find out carbon storage in d ifferent type of land use. (sungrass) as characteristic undergrowth in the plantation. Other under growth species were bhat, dhumki etc. 2. Material and Method 2.1. Site Descripti on The study included four pair of natural or plantation forest and clear felled Blocks of Chittagong North Forest Division, namely, Hasnabad Block, Fen i Block, Heyanko Block and Ichamat i Range under Ch ittagong North Forest Division. Thus, four pair of blocks lies between 22018′N to 22038′ N latitudes and 91058′ E to 92090′ E longitudes. And three pair of natural or p lantation forest and deforested blocks, namely Fatickchari, Mandakani and Chuniti blocks range under Chittagong Forest Division. Thus, three pairs of blocks lies between 220 08'N to 220 48'N lat itude and 910 58'E to 920 05'E longitude. 2.1.1. Hasanabad Block Hasanabad Forest Block was under Ch ittagong North Forest Division. This block contained a pair of site, representing one natural forest and one clear felled area . Natural forest site: This site was near to the office of Hasnabad Forest Range having a patch 10 year old natural garjan forest on flat hill top at 37 m elevation of 37 m. Previously this site was under mixed forest of Dipterocarpus turbinatus (garjan), Syzygium grande (dhaki jam) and Artocarpus chaplasha (chapalish). Canopy coverage of natural garjan forest was 90% with few scattered undergrowth. Undergrowth was mainly of Calamus guruba (jalibet) and seedlings of Dipterocurpus turbinatus. Forest floor was covered with thick layer of fresh and partially decomposed litter. Clear felled area: Clear felled site was 50 m west of the patch of natural garjan forest having similar elevation and topography. Previously clear felled area was covered with garjan, which felled in 2006. Undergrowth coverage of clear felled area was 10% with few scattered vegetation, main ly of Calamus guruba (jail bet). Litter coverage thickness at this area was very thin co mpared to natural forest. 2.1.2. Feni Block Feni Forest Block was also in Ch ittagong North Forest Div ision. This contained a pair site, representing one plantation and one clear felled area. Plantati on site: This p lantation was situated at the southern side of the Bhanga to wer under the Feni block at Korerhat sadar Beat and Range. This was 41 year o ld Tectona grandis (teak) plantation and established in 1966. Plantation site was lying on the middle part of 17% hill slope. Coverage of plantation was 60% with Imperata cylindrica Figure 1. Map of the study area Clear felled area: This was a 2007 clear field area, 70 m west of teak p lantation. Before clear felling of this site, 40 year old teak plantation was there, which felled in 2007. This site was also on mid hill of 20% slope. Tree canopy coverage at this site was 8% and undergrowth mainly Imperata cylindrica (sungrass), dhumki and Citrus lemon (le mon). 2.1.3. Hyanko Block Hyanko Forest Block was situated at Chittagong North Forest Division. This contained a pair of site, representing one plantation and one clear felled area. Plantati on: This p lantation was situated at the southern part of the Koila Bazaar under the Hyanko Block and Beat in Korerhat Forest Range. This was 25 year old garjan plantation, established in 1982. This site was on middle part of 19% h ill slope. Canopy coverage of site was 90% and undergrowth consisted of Calamus guruba (jalibet), Melastoma malabathricum (bon tejpata) and different kinds of herbs. Clear felled area: This was a 2003 clear felled area, 200 m south side of garjan plantation. Before clear felling 40 year old teak plantation was present there and then planted with teak, garjan, mahagoni, dhaki jam, champa, ch ickrassi, arjun, haritaki etc. Th is site was on middle of 15% hill slope. This site possessed 60% canopy coverage with undergrowth mainly of Imperata cylindrica (sungrass), Melastoma malabathricum, Calamus guruba etc. Feni Forest Block was also in Ch ittagong North Forest International Journal of A griculture and Forestry 2013, 3(3): 71-76 73 Div ision. This contained a pair site, representing one vines and creepers. Spacing of the trees in the plantation was plantation and one clear felled area. 2 m × 2 m. The nu mber o f t rees were 1650 /ha with an 2.1.4. Ichamoti Block average height of 9.5 m. Deforested land: In deforested land had no tree and Study sites both 1956 teak plantation and clear felled areas undergrowth consisted of Mimusa pudica (Lajjabati), were situated at Thandachori block of Ichamoti beat. Caealpinia cristael (Kootumkanta), Eupatorium odoratum Admin istratively, this site is situated at Rajanagar union (Assamlata), Mikania cordata (Tarakanta) etc. At Mandakini under Rangunia Upazilla in Chittagong District. Rangunia Upazilla lies between 22018′N to 22038′ N lat itudes and 91058′ E to 9209′ E longitudes. Plantati on site: Plantation began in 1949 with Teak soil samp ling was done fro m 0-10 cm and 10-30 cm depth both from p lantation and deforested land. 2.1.7. Chuniti Garjan, Horitaki, Bohera, Arjun, Jaru l, Telsur, and Sal, The study area was located at Chunuti Beat and Range which till now continued. Plantation site was lying on the under Chittagong South Forest division. The Chunuti middle part of 17% h ill slope. Coverage of plantation was 60% wildlife sanctuary covered a total area of 7764 ha of reserved with Imperata cylindrica (sungrass) as characteristic forest under the Chittagong forest division[14]. undergrowth in the plantation. Other under growth species Deforested l and: The land was 500m apart and to the were bhat, dhumki etc. west of the first deforested land. The topography of this land Clear felled area: This was a clear field area, 70 m west was also hilly and lied at an elevation of 20m. The distance of teak plantation. Th is site was also on mid hill of 20% slope. fro m the adjacent wildlife sanctuary land was 180m and to Tree canopy coverage at this site was 8% and undergrowth the east of the first deforested land. According to records of mainly Imperata cylindrica (sungrass), dhumki and Citrus Chunuti Forest Range, the site was deforested in the lemon (lemon). 2.1.5. Hazarikhil beginning of 1978 and therefore the deforestation age of this land was 27years. The land was sampled on 5th January 2005. Natural forest: On this land, only 20% species was The present study site is situated at Hazarikhil Beat and Range, under Ch ittagong North Forest Division. The total forest area in Hazarikh il Range is 4255 ha, legal status of which is a reserve forest. The Hazarikhil Range is situated at 45 km north of Chittagong city. natural and 80% species artificially planted by Forest Depart ment in 1977. The land was also hilly with an elevation of 30m. the dominant species of this land was Garjan (Dipterocarpus turbinatus). The land was samp led on 13th January 2005. Deforested l and: Hazarikhil was under Ch ittagong North Forest Division. This location contained 5 pair sites 2.2. Selection of Site representing natural forest and deforested land. The Two adjacent sites were selected fro m each Block, one deforested sites were of 15, 23, 33, 38, and 43 years old. fro m clearfelled area and another fro m adjacent natural Sampling points in the natural forest and deforested land forest or plantation and similarly one fro m deforested land were at least 50 m inside fro m the boundary to avoid and another fro m adjacent natural or p lantation forest. interaction between the two land use types. Adjacent sites were having more or less similar topography Natural forest: Natural forest consisted of a mixture of and site conditions. Thus 14 sites were selected fro m 7 different species in association with bamboo jungle having Blocks. 97% vegetation coverage. In deforested land coverage was 20%, each for trees, shrubs and herbs. At Hazarikh il soil 2.3. Soil Sampling sampling was done fro m 0-5 cm and 5-15 cm depth. In both clear fe lled and plantation area , 8 soil profiles were 2.1.6. Mandakini dug at a distance of 20 m fro m each other. Sampling plots in clearfelled area and another fro m adjacent natural forest at Mandakini was under Ch ittagong North Forest Div ision. least 50 m inside fro m the boundary to avoid any boarder This location contained a pair of site representing one natural effect. Similarly, 6 soil sample were co llected in both forest and one deforested land. Both deforested land and deforested and natural or plantation forest. Fro m each profile forest land covered an area of 25 ha. soils were sa mpled at a depth of 0-15 c m. About 1kg soil was Plantati on site: Plantation was 9 year old mixed species collected fro m each depth into appropriately labeled air tight consisted of Acacia auriculiformes (Akashmoni) and Acacia plastic bags and carried to the laboratory for subsequent mangium (Mangiu m). This site was situated on the southern analysis. About two kilogram of soil was collected fro m each side of Mandakini Beat office on 15% slope with 70% depth into appropriately labeled air t ight plastic bags and canopy coverage. Undergrowth covered area was not carried to the laboratory for subsequent analysis. uniform over the whole plantation. Undergrowth in this plantation included Mimosa pudica (Lajjabati), Caealpinia 2.3.1. Determination of Bulk Density cristael (Kootumkanta), Hyptic sauveolens (Tokma), For the determination of bulk density, 2 undisturbed soil Eupatorium odoratum (Assamlata) etc. with a number of cores were collected fro m each samp le plot in the field fro m 74 M ustainur Rahman et al.: Effects of Human Induced Activities on Carbon Emission in Chittagong District, Bangladesh upper 0 - 4 cm depth. Thus, 14 samp les were collected fro m plantation/natural forest land and another 14 cores fro m clear felled and deforested areas in each sampling season. For bulk density sampling, cores were driven vertically into the soil using a wooden hammer. The cores were then carefully dug out using a sharp knife and excess soil fro m the bottom end was removed before the soil fro m each core placed into a labeled plastic bag. The field mo ist soil cores were then weighed, allowed drying in an oven at 105℃ for 8 hours, cooled in a desiccator and reweighed. Both the field mo ist and oven dry weights of the cores were d ivided by the volume of each core (100 c m3) to determine wet and dry bulk density, respectively. Bulk density (g/cm3) = W2 - W1 , where, V W1 = Weight of core W2 = Weight of core + dry soil V = Vo lu me of core (100 cm3) 3. Results and Discussion 3.1. Natural Forest and Clear Felled Area 3.1.1. Bu lk Density Bulk density of the soil was lo wer in natural forest/plantation than the adjacent clearfelled sites in all the four blocks (Table 1). Mean bulk density of the surface soil was 1.39 g cc-1, 1.27 g cc-1, 1.31 g cc-1 and 1.67 g cc-1 respectively, for the natural forest/plantation sites, while their corresponding values in the clearfelled sites were 1.49 g cc-1, 1.43 g cc-1, 1.55 g cc-1 and 1.59 g cc-1 in four blocks of Hasnabd, Feni, Heyanko and Ichamoti respectively. Higher bulk density in the clearfelled sites may be due to lesser amount of organic matter, excessive erosion, logging operation in clearfelling etc., wh ich increased the compaction of surface soil. 3.1.2. Mo isture Content 2.3.2. Determination of Soil Moisture For determination mo isture content of soils at d ifferent depth, soil ta ken on the pre-weighted Petridis. It keeps in an oven at 105℃ for 8 hours; cooled in a desiccators and weight again[16]. For calcu lating mo isture content following calculations were used: Ca lculation Field mo isture content (%) = ????????2−W3×100 ???????? 3 −???????? 1 Where, W1= Weight of petridish W2 = Weight of petridish +field mo ist soil W3= Weight of petrid ish +dry soil 2.3.3. Determination of Organic Carbon in Soil For determination organic carbon of soils, washed silica crucibles were dried in oven at 105℃ for 30 minutes, cooled in desiccators and then weight were taken. Dried soils were grind by pistol and then exactly 5g of grind soil we re kept in silica crucibles and weighted by an electric balance. The crucibles with soils were then transferred to an electric muffle furnace for igniting at 850℃ for one and half an hour. Then crucibles with soils were cooled in a desiccators and reweight to determine the percent loss of ignition (LOI %). Percentage of LOI was calcu lated as follo ws: LOI (%) = ????????1 × 100 ????????2 Where, W1 = Loss in weight and W2 = weight of oven dry soil Percentage of carbon calculated fro m the following relatio n s h ip [1 5] . Organic carbon (%) = 0.476 (% LOI – 1.87) Data fro m each site were analy zed separately. Microsoft Excel was used for analy ze each parameter. To analy ze significance of different hypothesis, SPSS program was applied. Mean moisture content was higher in natural forest/plantation sites compared to clearfelled sites in a ll the four blocks (Table 1). Mean moisture content of the natural forest of Hasnabad Block was 15.62% while in adjacent clearfelled site it was 15.60%. In Feni Block mean mo isture content was 22.04%, while their corresponding values in adjacent clearfelled site was 14.30%. In Heyakhon Block mean moisture content in plantation was 20.04%, wh ile in adjacent clearfelled site it was 15.56%. In Ichamot i block mean moisture content in plantation was 16.21%, wh ile in adjacent clearfelled site it was 14.84%. The lower value of mo isture content in the clearfelled sites was due to the increased evaporation of soil moisture in absence of forest cover. Table 1. Bulk density, moisture content and carbon stock of soil under natural forest/plantation and clearfelled sites at three blocks in Chittagong North Forest Division Land use type Nat ural forest / P lant at ion Lo cat ion Hasnabad Feni Heyanko Ichamot i Bulk den sit y (g cc-1) 1.39 1.27 1.31 1.67 Mo ist ure content (%) 15.62 22.04 20.23 16.21 Carbon stock (t ha-1) 22.56 21.76 22.17 19.80 Mean 1.41 18.53 21.58 Hasnabad 1.49a 15.60 16.68 Feni 1.43 Clearfelled Heyanko 1.55 14.30 15.56 20.58 14.47 Ichamot i 1.59 14.84 18.92 Mean 1.52 15.08 17.67 3.1.3. Organic Carbon Stock In all the four Blocks organic carbon content was higher in natural forest/plantation compared to clearfelled sites in both surface and sub-surface soil (Table 1). In natural fo rest of International Journal of A griculture and Forestry 2013, 3(3): 71-76 75 Hasnabad Block organic carbon content was 22.56 t ha-1, while their corresponding values were 16.68 t ha-1 in adjacent clearfelled site. In Feni Block organic carbon content of soil in plantation was 21.76 t ha-1, wh ile their corresponding values in adjacent clearfelled site was 20.58 t ha-1. In Heyanko Block organic carbon content in plantation was 22.17, while their corresponding value was 14.47 in adjacent clearfelled site. In Ichamoti b lock organic carbon content in plantation was 19.80 t ha-1, while their corresponding value was 18.92 in ad jacent clearfelled site. Reduction of organic carbon was associated with burning following clear felling and lesser amount of litter accumulat ion. 3.2. Natural Forest and Deforested Land 3.2.1. Bu lk Density Bulk density of the soil was higher in natural forest / plantation than the adjacent deforested sites in all the three blocks (Table 2). Mean bulk density of the surface soil was 1.47 g cc-1, 1.37 g cc-1 and 1.41 g cc-1 respectively, for the natural forest/plantation sites, while their corresponding values in the deforested sites were 1.42 g cc-1, 1.33 g cc-1 and 1.39 g cc-1 in three blocks of Hazarikh il, Mandakan i and Chuniti respectively. Higher bulk density in the deforested sites may be due to lesser amount of organic matter, excessive erosion, logging operation in deforested etc. 3.2.2. Mo isture Content Table 2. Bulk density, moisture content and carbon stock of soil under natural forest/plantation and deforested land sites at three blocks in Ch itt agon g Land use type Nat ural forest / P lant at ion Mean Deforeste d land Mean Lo cat ion Hazarikhil Mandakini Ch un it i Hazarikhil Mandakini Ch un it i Bulk den sit y (g cc-1) 1.47 1.37 1.41 1.39 1.42 1.33 1.39 1.38 Mo ist ure content (%) 19.57 24.25 23.87 22.57 13.47 18.47 19.02 16.98 Carbon stock (t ha-1) 23.61 21.57 21.17 22.12 17.26 19.53 16.33 17.71 Mean moisture content was higher in natural forest / plantation sites compared to deforested sites in all the three blocks (Table 2). Mean moisture content of the natural forest of Hazarikh il Block mean mo isture content was 19.57%, while their corresponding values in adjacent deforested site was 13.47%. In Mandakani Block mean mo isture content in plantation was 24.25%, wh ile in ad jacent deforested site it was 18.47%. In Chunit i block mean mo isture content in plantation was 23.87%, wh ile in ad jacent deforested site it was 19.02%. The lower value of mo isture content in the deforested sites was due to the increased evaporation of soil mo isture in absence of forest cover. 3.2.3. Organic Carbon Stock In all the three Blocks organic carbon content was higher in natural forest/plantation compared to deforested sites in both surface and sub-surface soil (Table 2). In natural forest of Hazarikhil Block organic carbon content was 23.26 t ha-1, while their corresponding values were 17.67 t ha-1 in adjacent deforested site. In Mandakani Block organic carbon content of soil in plantation was 21.57 t ha-1, wh ile their corresponding values in adjacent deforested site was 19.53. In Chuniti Block organic carbon content in plantation was 21.17 t ha-1, wh ile their corresponding values were 16.33 t ha-1 in adjacent deforested site. Reduction of organic carbon was associated with deforested land and lesser amount of litter accumu lation. 3.3. General Discussion Many areas of upland watershed in Bangladesh are now being clear felled o r deforestation. Few studies so far have been conducted to find out clear felling and deforestation effects on soil properties in this region. Fro m the study, it is clear that both the clear felling and deforestation have negative impact on soil. Both the practices reduce the quality of soils. A better quality soil ensures a better forest cover. But in our country both the practices are increasing day by day. For facing the population pressure, most of the forests are being destroyed by clear felling. Th is practice g ives possibility for the human encroachment which is dangerous for the protection of forest. In the clear felled area, there was no undergrowth as well as ground vegetation at the time of in itial sampling i.e.just after clearfelling. In teak plantation area, negligible amount of undergrowth or ground vegetation was present. In the clearfelled site due to clearing of the vegetation had no vegetative cover and in the teak plantation, naturally coming vegetation was less. After one and half year, the clear felled area was covered with grass and various weeds heavily which indicated that sunlight made the environment favourable for weed growth. Takahashi and Ikeda[12] also reported that weed vegetation regrew quickly fro m the second year of clearfelling. Presence of lesser amount of organic matter in the later sampling also suggested that clear feling decrease humus content of soil. Findings of litter thickness and accumulation of dry litter value also suggested for the presence of lesser amount of hu mus layer. Leblance[13] also reported that clearfelling teared up the humus layer and exposed the mineral soil. Sien kiewicz (1988) a lso reported a sma ll but degraded trend for changes in humus content. Deforestation is a problem not only confined to Bangladesh but also a problem of g lobal concern. World’s forest recourses are now depleting at an alarming rate .The problem is more serious in Bangladesh comparing to g lobal perspectives. The most striking evidence of this is high and increasing rate of deforestation that has reached 3.3% during 1981- 1990, thus resulting in a total loss of 8300 ha. The corresponding rate for south Asian countries is 0.6%.the 76 M ustainur Rahman et al.: Effects of Human Induced Activities on Carbon Emission in Chittagong District, Bangladesh estimated annual loss due to deforestation presently varies 0.5-to 1.5% of GDP. 4. Conclusions Forestry appears to offer a relatively low-cost approach to sequestering carbon. The most serious problems with using forestry to sequester carbon would occur if fo restry activity were tru ly undertaken on a very large scale. Rapid deforestation and clear felling reduce the opportunity to absorb carbon fro m at mosphere and stored in soil. For that cause create different environ mental problem such as climate change and global warming. Plants acts as a mediu m for transfer of atmospheric carbon into the soil in the form of carbon-containing compounds. It`s contribute significant quantities of carbon deposited in sub-surface soil. These deposits have the potential for a greater contribution to long-term soil carbon sequestration due to slow oxidation than surface soil. The exact amount of sequestration depends on land-management practices, climate and the amount and quality of p lant and microbial inputs. Carbon sequestration will certainly contribute in reducing atmospheric CO2 concentration and will mitigate drought, salin ity stress and desertification. Thus, sequestered soil carbon may be used for agriculture, forestry and help to mit igate global climate change. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors would like to acknowledge Pro fessor Dr. S.M. Siraju l Haque, Institute of Forestry and Environ mental Sciences, University of Chittagong for his inspiration and suggestive criticis m in conducting the research and preparing the report. [5] Defra, 2010. Defra‟s Climate Change Plan. 172 pages. [6] Choudrie, S.L., Jackson, J., Watterson, J.D., M urrells, T., Passant, N., Thompson, A., Cardenas, L., Leech, A., M obbs, D.C., Thistlethwaite, G. 2008. UK Greenhouse Gas Inventory, 1990 to 2006: Annual Report for submission under the Framework Convention on Climate Change. Forestry Commission Information Note 48. [7] Smith, P., M artino, D., Cai, Z., Gwary, D., Janzen, H., Kumar, P., M cCarl, B., Ogle, S., O'M ara, F., Rice, C., and others, 2007. Agriculture, in: M etz, B., Davidson, O.R., Bosch, P.R., Dave, R. and M eyer, L.A. (Eds.), Climate Change 2007: M itigation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge & New York, pp. 497-540. [8] Thompson, D. 2008. Carbon management by land and marine managers. Natural England Research Report No 026. Sheffield. [9] Laffoley, D.D. and Grimsditch, G. (Eds.) 2009. The management of natural coastal carbon sinks. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland. [10] IPCC, 2007: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change[Solomon, S., D. Qin, M . M anning, Z. Chen, M . M arquis, K.B. Averyt, M .Tignor and H.L. M iller (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA. [11] Ball, D. F.1964.Loss on ignition as an estimate of organic matter and organic carbon in non-calcerous soils.Journal of soil science.15:84-92. [12] Takahashi, M . and Ikeda, S. 1994. Effects of clearfelling on the mineral nitrogen dynamics in the surface soil of a Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) plantation. A comparison between slash-removal and slash-scattering treatments. Journal-of-the-Japanese-forestry-Society. 76(3): 224-232. [13] Leblance, H. 1974. A new approach to the northern Spriuce regeneration problem For. Chron. 30 (4). REFERENCES [1] Ostle, N.J., Levy, P.E., Evans, C.D., Smith, P. 2009. UK land use and soil carbon sequestration. Land use Policy, 26, S274-S283. [2] IPCC, 2000. Land use, Land-use change and Forestry Summary for Policy M akers. A Special Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. P. 24. [3] Smith, P. 2004. Soils as carbon sinks: the global context. Soil Use and M anagement, 20, 212-218. [14] Rahman. M . L., Hossain, M . K. and Karim, Q. M .N., 2000. Diversity and composition of tree species in Chunati wildlife sanctuary of Chittagong Forest Division, Bangladesh. The Chittagong Univ. J. Sci., 24 (1) : 89-97. [15] Hoque, F.M .I., Dider-ul-Alam, M . 2005. A handbook of analysis soil. Dhaka: Bangladesh- Australia centre for Environmental research, 2116pp. [16] Chowdhury, M .S. Kalem, A.S.K. and Khan, N. 1969. Determination of organic carbon present in a soil sample by Walkey and Black’s Wet Oxidation M ethod. In M anual of Elementary Soil Experiments. University Book. Press: Dhaka, Bangladesh. [4] Broadmeadow, M ., M atthews, R. 2003. Forest, carbon and climate change: the UK contribution.

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