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Effects of earthworm manure on organic cultivation of Cucumber

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  • Save International Journal of A griculture and Forestry 2013, 3(7): 316-321 DOI: 10.5923/j.ijaf.20130307.09 Vermicompost Effects on Organic Farming of Cucumis sativus Suparno1,*, Budi Prasetya2, Abu Talkah3, Soemarno4 1University Brawijaya Student, M alang, 65145, Indonesia 2Faculty of Agriculture, University Brawijaya, M alang, 65145, Indonesia 3Islamic University Kadiri, Kediri, 64128, Indonesia 4PDKLP UB M alang, University Brawijaya, M alang, 65145, Indonesia Abstract The study was conducted to determine the influence of vermico mpost fro m organic waste on the growth and the yield of Cucumis sativus, as well as to determine the content of As, Pb, Hg and Cd of the Cucumis sativus fruit and of the soil, after vermico mpost treatment. The experimental design used was a randomized block design (RBD), which were co mprised of three treat ments: vermico mpost treatment 10 tons per acre, vermico mpost treatment 20 tonnes per hectare and vermico mpost treatment 30 tons per hectare, plus a control without vermico mpost treatment, each treatment was repeated three times. The measured variables were the plant length, the number of leaves, the fruit we ight, the fruit brix, the content of As, Pb, Hg and Cd in the fruit and soil. The observation of Brix fru it was measured using Refractometer; Hg using CA3M tool; As, Pb, Cd using AAS and statistical analysis by ANOVA. Apparently, vermico mpost fertilizer applicat ion on Cucumis sativus plants increased the number of leaves, the plant length, the fruit weight of each plant and fruit brix value o f 8.33. It also produces any Cucumis sativus that contained no As and Hg, yet contained Pb and Cd whose value was very low and below the limit of food safety. The use of vermico mpost fertilizer on Cucumis sativus does not leave any residue of As, Pb, Hg and Cd on the soil of former p lantation. Keywords Waste, Heavy Metals, Vermico mpost, Cucumis sativus 1. Introduction Th e dev elop men t o f o rg an ic cu lt ivat ion has b een increasingly demanded to meet the needs of consumers who begin to consu me o rganic p roducts. Ho wever, accord ing to[1], in th e reality , t he p rice o f organ ic rice is mo re expensive than non-organic rice; and the demand for organic fruits and vegetables is expected to increase in the future. Organic Cucumis sativus fruit is expected to obtain by the application of vermico mpost fert ilizer created fro m urban waste. The d irect use of urban solid waste as an organ ic fertilizer wou ld encounter few obstacles, such as the fact that urban solid waste comprised of both organic and inorganic materials, therefore it is necessary to separate both of them, as in[18], urban waste consisted of heavy metals, as in[7]. Heavy metals that were h ighly poisonous in u rban solid waste were A rsenic (As), Mercury (Hg ), Lead (Pb) and Cad miu m (Cd), which could contribute to the pollution of t he env iron men t and accu mu lat e ins id e o f p lants , as in[10],[14], and[20]. Vermico mpost is a compost which is * Corresponding author: (Suparno) Published online at Copyright © 2013 Scientific & Academic Publishing. All Rights Reserved derived fro m the organic material overhaul done by earthworms, as in[15]. Worms can absorb heavy metal substances which have high concentrations; In the process, the worm eats the metals, and coats each heavy metal particle with a certa in protein, which prevents these metals to interact with the inside of his body, as in[12]. It turns out that the vermico mpost which is created from cigarette waste with the help of earthworms does not contain any arsenic; vermico mpost can improve the plant growth and the yield of melon, as in[30]. The use of organic in the cult ivation of melon was able to suppress the use of manufactured KCl fertilizers up to 25.0%, Urea to 12, 5% and SP-36 to 63.6%, the weight and sugar content of a fruit was also prone to increase; The average weight of all me lons for all treat ments was at 1.82 kg, the sugar content obtained was categorized as low as 7.6% and as med iu m as 10.21%, as in [26]. High level of P absorption was obtained at the vermico mpost dose of 30 ton/ha[31]. The use of vermico mpost plus NPK significantly affected the P absorpstion of plants vegetative organs, as well as the absorption of N, P, and K of the fru it trees. By allocating vermico mpost for about 2.5 t/ha, the use of NPK (15-15-15) fert ilizer was able to be reduced by 25-75% without reducing the yield of Cucumis sativus, as in[24]. Five tones of vermico mpost application added with 50 kg of N, 50 kg of P2O5 and 50 kg of K2O per ha could increase the International Journal of A griculture and Forestry 2013, 3(7): 316-321 317 growth and the yield of Amaranthus tricolor L., as in[21]. The market waste is the source of organic material that could be decomposed by earthworms, faster than the decomposition of organic material straw, as in[5]. Vermico mpost is a mixture of earthworm excrements with the residual med ia or fodder in the cultivation of earthwo rms, therefore vermico mpost is an organic fertilizer which is environmentally friendly and has its own advantages compared to other co mposts; Its quick process and the resulting compost has a high content of nutrients available is the major advantage of Vermico mpost, as in[15] and[28]. Vermico mpost dose of 0.75 kg per polybag was a measure that gives the highest yield in the medic inal plants; while the dose combination and way of vermico mpost application which gave the maximu m response for medicinal plant was 0.75 kg per polybag mixed evenly with the soil, as in[25]. Vegetables and seasonal fruits require 20 tons of compost per hectare, as in[13]. Co mpost is not only needed as a nutrient supplement, but also to maintain the structure of the soil to stay friable and moist. Organic fert ilizers can be used to fulfil the nutrient needs of plants, as in[16]. Fertilizing Cucumis sativus plants with the combination of organic fertilizer and inorganic fert ilizer is feasible because the BC ratio can reach 1.87, as in[9]. The effectiveness test of organic fertilizer for plants is necessary to protect against the negative effects of the use of organic fertilizers. The Parameter, whose effectiveness is tested, is those which had met the min imu m technical criteria for organic fertilizer or a fertilizer that has passed the quality tests, as in[3]. Related to the abovementioned, a study about the usage of organic waste vermico mpost fertilizer on Cucumis sativus plants was implemented in order to (1) determine the effect of vermicompost on the growth and the yield of Cucumis sativus, (2) analyze the content of As, Pb, Hg and Cd on Cucumis sativus, (3) analy ze the content of As, Pb, Hg and (4) Cd in the soil which has been used for cultivating the Cucumis sativus. 2. Research Method The experiment was conducted in the village of Ngadilu wih, Sub district of Ngadilu wih, Kediri Regency. Alluvia l soil in the bank of the Brantas River is a silt mixed with friab le and fine blackish gray colored sand which is rather good in water retaining, and has pH 5.8, as in[4]. The study began fro m soil cu ltivation in September 2012 until crop harvesting in November 2012. The experimental design used was a randomized block design (RBD). The treat ment consisted of three doses of vermico mpost T1=vermico mpost dose of 10 ton/ha; T2=vermico mpost dose of 20 ton/ha; T3=vermico mpost dose of 30 ton/ha, the control is T0=without any dose of vermico mpost fertilizer; each treat ment was repeated three times. The variab le of gro wth observation and yield of Cucumis sativus included the plants length, the number of leaves, the fruit weight, and the brix value/sugar content of the fruit, as in[30], statistically analyzed with ANOVA method for F test; The sugar content (Brix) inside of fru it was measured using a Refractometer, and fru it and soil analysis in the laboratory at Un iversitas Brawijaya Malang. For the content of As, Pb, Cd; the method used was AAS (Atomic Absorption Spectrofotometri) method, and lastly, the content of Hg using Cold Ato mic Absorbtion Analyser of Mercury. Black and Silver plastic mu lch, scales, refracto meter, AAS, and Cold Atomic Absorption Analyser of Mercury were used in this study. Besides, the best Cucumis sativus seeds and vermico mpost taken from previous research which had been analyzed resulting in the content of 6.01% C organic, 0.63%N total, C / N 10; 0.97%P2O5, 0.07 %K2O, 875 pp m Fe, 14 ppm Cu, 70 pp m Zn, 952 ppm Mn, 370 ppm B, 10 pp m Co, 242 pp m Mo; unmeasured Pb, Hg, As; and Cd. Cucumis sativus seeds were soaked for 15 minutes, the floating seeds were disposed afterwards. The seeds which were still submerged were then soaked for another 24 hours. Next, the seeds were moved into the folds of wet newspaper for about 12 hours until the roots coming out from the inside. Then the seeds were planted in the polybags, as in[19], sowing seeds in the polybags until four leafs came out, 10 days of age, the nursery were chosen in the place wh ich was not too shady so that the seeds would not be et iolated. Growing tall, stocky, and producing dark green leaves were the signs of healthy seedlings. For cult ivation, land was plowed two times, then hoed; forming 7m x 1m x 0.5 cm beds whose gaps between beds (trench width) were 60 cm wide, as in[19]. After the seedbeds were given the vermico mpost fertilizer, with the dose according to the treatment, and mixed evenly with the topsoil thickness for about 15 cm, as in[25]. Beds were covered in plastic mulch, and the edges were fastened to the ground using slits of bamboo. Next, planting preparation. Tape measure and straps were used to help aligning the plant ro ws, mulch ho le puncher to perforate the black silver mu lch, and dibble to make the planting hole according to the spacing of 70 c m X 70 c m, as in[22]. Planting was done by moving the Cucumis sativus seedlings from the polybags, and putting them in the planting hole, the soil around the plant was pressed by hand in order to dense and make the soil stick to the plants. A planting hole was kept until the plant was ready to harvest. The first watering was done a day before planting, the next was every two weeks by flowing the water into the ditch and not to inundate the plastic mu lch. Cucumis sativus only required mo ist soil, not flooding water. The first up to sixth branch which came outward were pruned, yet the seventh branch and forward were left to grow and maintained. The female flower wh ich grew on the seventh branch was ma intained until the fruit was produced, while the other flo wers were cut, to keep only one fruit in a plant. 318 Suparno et al.: Vermicompost Effects on Organic Farming of Cucumis sativus Pests, such as caterpillars, that attacked leafs were controlled by taken off of the leaves and exterminated. If stem rot occurred, the stem was removed and kept away fro m the planting bed. Harvesting was done in the morning between 07.00 AM and 09.00 AM, when the plants were at age of 51 days. The growing size of of the fruit and produced a hollow sound when lightly knocked was the indication that the fruit was ready to harvest. Harvest was done by cutting the fruit stalk using scissors, put the fruit carefully, because Cucumis sativus was quite fragile. 3. Results and Discussion The effect of vermico mpost dose treatment towards the length of Cucumis sativus were presented in Table 1. Table 1. The Length of Cucumis sativus from One until Six Weeks of Age after Planting The ave rage length of plant (cm) at the age of Tre atment 1W 2W 3W 4W 5W 6W No V 5,56 a 22,00 ab 71,44 a 114,00 a 120,56 a 126,00 a V 10 ton/ha V 20 ton/ha 5,89 a 6,00 a 20,00 a 22,33 ab 67,33 a 76,22 ab 126,00ab 138,22 b 143,33ab 155,56 b 148,44ab 158,00 b V 30 ton/ha 7,44 b 29,44 b 92,00 b 146,89 b 157,44 b 163,11 b 5% LSD 1,35 7,29 16,65 22,46 27,81 26,68 Description The numbers followed by the same letter, in the same column, were not significantly different at 5% LSD test (Little Significant Difference) At the age of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 weeks after planting, the Cucumis sativus, wh ich grew shortest, was fro m the no-vermico mpost treatment, while longest growth was fro m treatment with 30 tons per hectare vermico mpost fertilizer (Table1). The vermico mpost fert ilizer fro m o rganic waste that was applied to the Cucumis sativus comprised of nutrients such as 0.63% Nitrogen, with the dose of 30 tons of vermico mpost per hectare = 30,000 kg X 0.63% Nit rogen = 189 kg N per hectare. Allegedly, with that amount of nitrogen, the plant would respond to vegetative growth, absorbed nitrogen involved in the format ion of carbohydrates compound. In this phase carbohydrates and nitrogen compounds are used for the format ion of protoplas m in the growing tip of the stem, as in[11], making the tip of the Cucumis sativus grew longer quickly. Thereby, the treatment of 30 tons of vermico mpost per hectare made Cucumis sativus grew longer. This statement is supported by Moraditochaee, as in[17]. The study on the effect of vermico mpost usage on eggplant height is significantly different at 1% probability level, as in[30], that vermico mpost can increase the length of Cucumis melo p lan ts . Vermico mpost dose treatment effect on the number of Cucumis sativus leaves were presented in Table 2. At the age of 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks after planting, Cucumis sativus plant which were treated with vermico mpost fertilizer 10 tons per hectare and 20 tonnes per hectare did not differ significantly fro m the Cucumis sativus with no-vermico mpost treatment, while Cucumis sativus with 30 tons per hectare treatment yield the most number of leaves and was significantly different (Table 2). Allegedly, 30 tons per hectare vermico mpost were significant on the growth of Cucumis sativus plant leaves, since the vermico mpost containing 0.63% nit rogen. Nitrogen acted as a vital component in the leaf chlorophyll during the photosynthesis, the conversion of inorganic substances (CO2 and H2O) into organic substance (C6H12O6). Carbohydrates alongside with nitrogen were used for the forming of protoplas m in the growing point in of a p lant, as in[11]. Newly grown leaf in the growing point evolved fro mp rimo rdial and formed in the bud. When the primord ial of newly g rown leaf had been formed, the previous primo rdial leaf was widened already. Primordial leaf would continue to grow to certain size. The increasing number of leaves occured as the result of the increasing number of cells and then followed by the increasing of the cell size as well as the division of many different cells in certain areas of the leaf meristem, leading to the activity of leaf meristem which caused the formation of primord ial of the new grown leaf. Nit rogen is responsible for stimulat ing the plant growth, including the number of leaves, as in[29]. Table 2. The Number of Cucumis sativus Leaves One until Four Weeks of Age After Planting Tre atment The ave rage leaf number (blade) at the age of 1W 2W 3W 4W No V V 10 ton/ha 4,78 a 5,00 a 7,89 a 7,56 a 10,56 a 11,44 a 18,78 a 19,00 a V 20 ton/ha 5,11 a 8,22 a 12,11 a 20,00 a V 30 ton/ha 5% LSD 6,56 b 0,79 9,67 b 0,88 14,33 b 1,66 24,11 b 4,09 Description The numbers followed by the same letter, in the same column, are not significantly di fferent at 5% LSD(Little Significant Difference) International Journal of A griculture and Forestry 2013, 3(7): 316-321 319 Cucumis sativus weight at various treatment of vermico mpost dose were presented in Table 3. Table 3. Cucumis sativus Weight per Plant Tre atment No V V 10 ton/ha V 20 ton/ha V 30 ton/ha 5% LSD Fruit Weight Avg. (g) 1488,89 a 2138,89 b 1966,67 b 2722,22 c 422,23 Description The numbers followed by simillar letters are not significantly di fferent at 5% LSD (Little Significant Difference) At the age of 51 days after planting (when yielding the fruits), the treat ment received was not significantly different for the 10 tonnes/ha and 20 tonnes/ha of vermico mpost dose, but for the control (without no-vermico mpost at all) the treatment was different which resulting in the lightest weight of Cucumis sativus. Furthermore, the heaviest fruits were fro m the 30 ton/ha vermico mpost dose which result was totally heavier fro m the other treat ments in 5% LSD test (Table 3), which allegedly was fro m the fact that organic waste vermico mpost contained of P2O5, N and K2O. Phosphate served to stimulate the root growth, and affected the absorption of plant nutrients. Nit rogen was useful as the main components of protein which formed the protoplas m matrix and necessary for the enzyme synthes is as well as the component of chlorophyll pig ment as a part of the chlorophyll molecule. Vermico mpost fertilizat ion would add Potassium levels to the soil which fo llo wed by the increasing of negative charge of sorption and decomposition of organic matter. The increasing the negative charge would bind cations K in the soil solution, so the availability of other cations increased resulting in the increased production, as in[27]. The application of urban waste vermicompost on Cucumis sativus significantly affects the fruit weight per plant, as om[11]. Cucumis sativus weight is influenced by the plant growth, as seen in the regression equation as fo llo ws : Y = -1200.280-184.082X1.1-367.689X1.2 +396.570X1.3+131.556X1.4+285.733X2.1 -70.953X2.2+10.843X2.3-6.779X2.4 -16.961X2.5+13.686X2.6. The growth rate that significantly in fluenced the fruit weight when the number of leaves at the age of three weeks (X1.3) at 396,570 with the significant of 0,499 and plant length at the age of three weeks was (X2.3) 10,843 with the significant of 0,488. The effect o f vermico mpost dose treatment on sugar content (brix) of Cucumis sativus were p resented in Table 4. At the age of 51 days after planting, the sugar content of Cucumis sativus was tested using refracto meter, a tool to analyze the levels o f sucrose in foods, as in[6]. The observations of sugar content (brix) in the fruits which were treated with vermico mpost fertilizer 30 tons per hectare produced Cucumis sativus with high level of brix as high as 8.33 and significantly d ifferent fro m the the fru its with 20, 10 and 0 tons per hectare doses of vermico mpost fertilizer. The lowest value of brix for Cucumis sativus without vermico mpost treatment was as high as 4.33 (Table 4), presumably because the vermico mpost contained K2O which was used to increase the sugar content (brix) in Cucumis sativus. Table 4. Brix Value of Cucumis sativus Tre atment No V V 10 ton/ha V 20 ton/ha V 30 ton/ha 5% LSD Brix fruit Avg. 4,33 a 6,67 b 6,67 b 8,33 c 1,15 Description The numbers followed by similar letters, are not significantly different at 5% LSD test (Little Significant Difference) The plants absorbed the nutrients to meet the metabolic needs of the plant body especially for the increasing of sugar levels and fruit quality, as in[27]. Potass ium is a hygroscopic element (absorb water easily), it causes a lot of water to be absorbed in stomata, the osmotic pressure rises opening the stomata so CO2 will enter and be available for photosynthesis, and potassium acts as an act ivator for all enzy me activ ities mainly for the protein synthesis and helps glucose translocation sugars from the leaves to the rest of the plant, as in[26]. Potassium is also an important influence on the format ion of carbohydrates and glucose translocation in plants. In addition, Potassium can be used improve the quality of fruit sweetness, as in[11]. Cucumis sativus Brix influenced by plant growth, as seen in the regression equation as follo ws: Y = -2.184 -4.080X1.1-1.841X1.2+2.035X1.3 +0.819X1.4 +2.391X2.1-0.017X2.2 +0.042X2.3 -0.156X2.4 +0.266X2.5 -0.214X2.6 Growth rate that significantly influence the Brix value when the number of leaves at the age of four weeks (X1.4) of 0,819 with significant point of 0,334 and plants length at the age of three weeks (X2.3) o f 2,391 with significant 0,406. The results of laboratory analysis on Cucumis sativus are presented in Table 5. Table 5. The content of Hg Pb As and Cd on Fruit Cucumis sativus ve rmicompost dose The content (ppm) Hg Pb As Cd An average of three replications 0 (Control) 10 ton/ha 20 ton/ha tu 0,8 tu tu tu 1,0 tu 0,07 tu 1,1 tu 0,10 30 ton/ha tu 0,5 tu 0,03 Description tu = immeasurable with AAS and CA3M analytical methods The numbers followed by similar letters, are not significantly different at 5% LSD test (Little Significant Difference) 320 Suparno et al.: Vermicompost Effects on Organic Farming of Cucumis sativus In table 5, both plants, which were fert ilized using vermico mpost or not, produced Cucumis sativus that did not contain any As and Hg, and the fruit of plants which were not fertilized using vermico mpost containing 0.8 ppm Pb. In the treatment of 10 tons per hectare vermico mpost, the fruit contained 1.0 ppm Pb and Cd 0.07 pp m. Next , the treat ment of 20 tons per hectare vermico mpost, 1.1 pp m Pb. and Cd 0.10 ppm were found in the fru it. In the treat ment of 30 tons per hectare vermico mpost, the fruit contained Pb 0.5 ppm and 0.03 ppm Cd. The content of Pb and Cd found in the Cucumis sativus, wh ich were either not fert ilized o r fert ilized using vermico mpost, were assumed not from the application of the vermico mpost but the vehicle exhaust pollution at the planting site instead. Pb is also used for the manufacture of tetraethyl gasoline fuel mixtures, as in[10], and further explained that Pb tends to be bound by organic matter and are often concentrated in the top soil due to the blending with the plants, forming the metal chelate co mp lex with organic materials. Plants absorb the heavy metals that exist in the soil, water and air through the roots and leaves/stomata, as in[8]. Based on the maximu m heavy metal contamination allowed in the fruit that Pb maximu m is 2.0 mg/kg and Cd maximu m is 0.2 mg/kg, as in[2], the Cucumis sativus with the highest Pb content of 1.1 pp m and the highest Cd of 0.10 pp m was still under the safe level for consumption. In other words, the content of Pb and Cd on Cucumis sativus is negligib le. The analysis of former soil used for planting Cucumis sativus fertilized with vermico mpost is shown in Table 6. Table 6. The content of Hg As Pb and Cd in Soil Plant Used ve rmicompost The content (ppm) dose Hg Pb As Cd An average of three replications 0 (Kontrol) tu tu tu tu 10 ton/ha tu tu tu tu 20 ton/ha tu tu tu tu 30 ton/ha tu tu tu tu Description tu = not measurable with AAS analytical methods and CA3M Table 6 shows that the former soil of Cucumis sativus planting did not contain any Hg, Pb, As and Cd, so that planting another plant would not leave behind any residu in the vermico mpost-fertilized-soil, or in other words, the vermico mpost did not contribute to environmental pollution. 3). The usage of vermico mpost fertilizer on the Cucumis sativus, apparently, did not leave any residue behind such as As, Pb, Hg and Cd on former plantation lands. REFERENCES [1] Anonymous. 2012. Achieve Organic Rice Price Rp.15.000, Office of Food Crops and Horticulture (Dispertan TPH). Winton. Java. [2] Anonymous. , 2009. Limit for Heavy M etal Contamination in Food. SNI (Indonesian National Standard) 738-2009. 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