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Effects of spring and autumn sowing on Agronomic Characters of chickpea genotypes

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https://www.eduzhai.net/ International Journal of Agriculture and Forestry 2014, 4(2): 82-87 DOI: 10.5923/j.ijaf.20140402.06 Agronomic Traits of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Genotypes as Affected by Spring and Autumn Sowing Atoosa Rahmani, Khosro Mohammadi*, Babak Pasari Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, Sanandaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sanandaj, Iran Abstract Sowing date and cultivar are two important factors which affecting the agronomic traits of chickpea. Two field experiments were conducted at Islamic Azad University of Sanandaj in Kurdistan province of Iran, during 2012 growing season. The 25 chickpea varieties from diverse geographic origins were chosen and arranged randomized in augment experiment. Results showed that the average of leaf greenness index was 28.78 and 31.17 (Spad number) in spring and autumn sowing, respectively. Genotypes have higher pod number per plant and seed number per pod in autumn sowing, although the 100 seeds weight of genotypes increased in spring sowing. Grain yield (kg/ha) ranged from 130.7 to 1144.5 with a mean value of 540.73 kg/ha in spring sowing and ranged from 199.2 to 1579.1 with a mean value of 757.5 kg/ha in autumn sowing. The grain yield of Ardabil 50 and Ardabil 71 in autumn sowing was on average 3-4 times higher than that of spring sowing. Finally, the Torbat 5 and Ardabil 50 selected as the best cultivars of our experiment. Keywords Autumn sowing, Legume, Protein, Spring sowing, Yield 1. Introduction Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is the most important pulse crop, and the seed is a major source of plant-based dietary protein for humans and is grown in at least 37 countries in South and West Asia, North and East Africa, southern Europe, North and South America, and Australia. In Iran, chickpea is the most important pulse crop which is grown on an area of 508313 hectares with total production of 239768 tons making an average of 471 kg ha-1. This average yield is much lower than most of the leading countries of the world [3]. Its low fertilizer requirements, ability of nitrogen fixation, increasing soil nitrogen content in crop rotations and sufficient yield in marginal lands are considerable benefits of chickpea. Sowing date and variety are two important factors which affecting the agronomic traits of chickpea. The most important step towards maximizing yield of chickpea is to ensure that the phenology of the crop or cultivar is well matched to environment conditions [9]. The genetic diversity among and within landraces makes them a valuable resource as potential donors of genes for breeding purposes, diversification of production, developing new farming systems and new quality products [11]. Emergence and flowering time are important because environmental conditions during the germination and reproductive phase * Corresponding author: khosromohammadi60@yahoo.com (Khosro Mohammadi) Published online at https://www.eduzhai.net Copyright © 2014 Scientific & Academic Publishing. All Rights Reserved have a major impact on final yield [10]. Cold stress and Ascochyta blight decreased the chickpea yield in autumn sowing [6]. Autumn sowing was not possible in the past, since the varieties cultivated by farmers were susceptible to cold stress and were infected much more under autumn sowing from diseases such as Ascochyta blight and Sclerotinia sp. which are difficult to control by existing commercial fungicides. But, because of high vegetative growth period, if the chickpea is sown in autumn, higher grain yield can be obtained in comparision with spring sowing. Findings of Ozdemir and Karadavut [6] showed a 102% yield increase in autumn sowing over spring sowing in Turkey. Singh [8] reported that winter-sown chickpea produced seed yield as 70% higher than spring-sown crop in Syria. Selection of cultivars resistance to cold has been extensively studied by national and international breeding programs, and high yielding cultivars have been selected and developed [8]. Optimum sowing time of chickpea vary from one variety to another and also from one region to another due to variation of agro-ecological conditions, so the aim of present study was to investigate the response of different genotypes with different geographic origin of chickpea to autumn and spring sowing in Kurdistan province of Iran. 2. Materials and Methods Two field experiments were conducted at Islamic Azad University of Sanandaj (35°11‫ ׳‬lat. N; 46°59‫ ׳‬long. E, 1400 m above sea level) in Kurdistan province of Iran, during 2012 growing season. This farm had been sown by wheat at International Journal of Agriculture and Forestry 2014, 4(2): 82-87 83 last year. Annual rainfall (35-year long-term average) is mostly concentrated during the autumn and winter months (Fig. 1). Some of the soil physicochemical properties of farm in the surface layer (0–25 cm) were: clay-loam texture (29% sand, 41% clay and 30% silt), pH 7.31 (1:2.5 in water), 1.18% OM, 0.21% total N, 212 mg kg-1 extractable K+ (NH4Ac) and 7.1 mg kg-1 Olsen P. The 25 chickpea varieties from diverse geographic origins were chosen and arranged randomized in augment experiment. Genotypes include: improved breeding lines were obtained from the International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), Turkey and Cyprus cultivar, Iranian landrace chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) accessions from different geographical location of Iran provided by Seed and Plant Improvement Institute, Karaj, Iran, and improved cultivars (ILC 263, Hashem, Kaka and Pirooz) that used in most of chickpea cultivation area of Iran (Table 1). Mesorhizobium sp. cicer strain SW7 was added to all the chickpea seeds. Chickpea seeds were planted on March 1, 2012 and October 15, 2012 in spring and autumn sowing, respectively. Each genotype was sown 4 m in length, with 35 cm inter-row spacing. Weeds were removed manually in all plots. The chickpea cultivation was rainfed but, the field was irrigated two times with seven a day interval for the better germination of seeds. After harvesting, seeds were collected to determine the grain yield and yield components. The nitrogen content of the matured seeds was determined by Microkjeldhal method [2] and multiplied to 6.25 to obtain protein content. Leaf greenness index were taken with a hand-held dual wavelength meter (SPAD 502, Chlorophyll meter, Minolta Camera Co., Ltd., Japan) at the flowering stage (10 leaves in each cultivar). The data collected in this study was subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the LS means was used to compare means of traits (p< 0.05). In addition, correlation coefficients among traits were also determined. precipitaion (mm) temperature ([°C) precipitation long term precipitation temperature long term temperature 120 30 100 25 80 20 60 15 40 10 20 5 0 0 JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC Figure 1. Monthly precipitation and air temperature during the 2012 and over the long-term (1975–2010) in Sanandaj, Iran Table 1. List of chickpea accessions used in the study No. Genotype 1 Flipo 40161 2 Flipo 40974 3 Flipo 41510 4 Flipo 40171 5 Hashem 6 Kermanshah 17 7 Esfahan 16 8 Torbat 39 9 Ardabil 50 10 Ardabil 71 11 Kerman 19 12 Torbat 5 13 Turkey 602 Source No. ICARDA 14 ICARDA 15 ICARDA 16 ICARDA 17 Iran 18 Iran-Kermanshah 19 Iran-Esfahan 20 Iran-Torbat 21 Iran-Ardabil 22 Iran-Ardabil 23 Iran-Kerman 24 Iran-Torbat 25 Turkey Genotype Kerman 40 Esfahan 40 Flipo 02-58c Flipo 2005-6c Flipo 05-183c ILC 482 Pirooz Kaka C421 Torbat 21 Jiroft 9 Karaj 41 Source Iran-Kerman Iran-Esfahan ICARDA ICARDA ICARDA ICARDA Iran Iran Landrace-Cyprus Iran-Esfahan Iran-Jiroft Iran-Karaj 84 Atoosa Rahmani et al.: Agronomic Traits of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Genotypes as Affected by Spring and Autumn Sowing 3. Results and Discussion Table 2. Effect of spring and autumn sowing on yield components of chickpea genotypes (data are LS means) Genotypes Flipo 40496 Flipo 40974 Flipo 41510 Flipo 40171 Hashem Kermanshah 17 Esfahan 16 Torbat 39 Ardabil 50 Ardabil 71 Kerman 19 Torbat 5 Turkey 602 Kerman 40 Esfahan 40 Flipo 02-58c Flipo 2005-6c Flipo 05-183c ILC 482 Pirooz Kaka C421 Torbat 21 Jiroft 9 Karaj 41 LSD Seed number per pod autumn spring 0.12 1.23 1.10 1.40 0.11 1.57 0.45 0.32 0.68 0.88 0.24 0.45 0.50 0.96 0.41 1.00 0.72 1.08 1.80 0.82 0.01 0.91 0.93 0.95 1.03 1.01 1.10 0.88 0.59 1.59 0.18 0.57 1.22 0.67 0.77 0.63 0.88 0.67 0.58 0.56 0.76 1.09 0.23 1.00 0.33 0.92 0.77 0.64 0.78 0.84 0.15 0.25 Pod number per plant autumn spring 14.77 6.77 2.10 18.44 18.44 22.44 14.10 19.77 31.50 19.35 41.44 10.35 37.02 10.10 55.35 14.44 51.02 13.77 42.69 3.44 43.44 11.44 68.85 13.44 45.52 20.44 29.19 19.44 32.69 28.44 11.35 8.10 73.69 8.44 14.35 10.02 36.25 9.33 35.50 19.67 25.83 17.58 27.77 16.77 27.10 21.10 21.02 21.35 49.69 4.77 6.25 4.22 100 seeds weight autumn spring 7.64 12.38 12.11 14.37 5.76 11.34 9.45 21.00 14.10 29.00 13.11 26.22 14.78 15.62 19.50 23.24 15.51 14.95 2.90 20.51 9.35 24.34 8.44 15.00 3.01 10.92 12.71 23.47 15.88 4.51 8.13 15.41 6.08 14.84 13.59 16.42 15.16 34.43 13.84 31.67 12.65 13.87 12.31 14.23 13.76 13.40 13.92 14.42 13.33 19.76 3.15 7.09 Analysis of variance showed significant differences among genotypes for all the measured characters in both cultivations. The variability between genotypes was high for all traits (P<0.01), indicated that differences existed between the accessions for yield and other yield related traits. The experimental coefficient of variation (CV) varied from 6.9 to 11.2 in spring sowing and was 7.7 to 16.2 in autumn sowing. In general, CV value lower than 20% is considered to be good, indicating the accuracy of conducted experiments. The plant height was significantly affected by cultivars and sowing date, more cultivars have a highest plant height in autumn sowing, but the plant height of Flipo 40974, Esfahan 16, Torbat 21 and Jiroft 9 cultivars decreased in autumn sowing (Fig. 2). This decrease in vegetative growth can be related to origin of varieties. The origin of these cultivars belongs to warm area. It seemed that these cultivars are sensitive to cold stress. For spring sowing, average plant heights were 34.2 cm and for autumn sowing were 41.4 cm. Plant metabolism will decrease at low temperatures and chemical reactions within the plant will take longer. Optimum plant growth often requires close temperature regulation; daytime temperatures between 25C and 30C are preferred. It seems that the more cultivars of this experiment were compatible to low temperature. The leaf greenness index was significantly affected by cultivars and sowing date. Some cultivars have a more greenness index in autumn sowing and some cultivars show an inverse response (Fig. 3). The average of leaf greenness index was 28.78 and 31.17 (spad number) in spring and autumn sowing, respectively. The highest leaf greenness index belongs to Esfahan 40 and Flip 02-58c genotypes, in autumn and spring sowing, respectively. Genotypes have higher pod number per plant and seed number per pod in autumn sowing, although the 100 seeds weight of genotypes increased in spring sowing. The pod number per plant in autumn sowing was on average two times higher than that of spring sowing (Table 2). Grain yield (kg/ha) ranged from 130.7 to 1144.5 with a mean value of 540.73 kg/ha in spring sowing and ranged from 199.2 to 1579.1 with a mean value of 757.5 kg/ha in autumn sowing (Fig. 4). This considerable variability provides a good opportunity for improving traits of interest in chickpea breeding programs. The response of genotypes to spring and autumn sowing was different. Some genotypes have a more grain yield in spring sowing (Flipo 41510, Flipo 40974, Hashem, Kerman 19 etc.). It seems that grain yield of these genotype decreased due to cold stress. The grain yield of Ardabil 50 and Ardabil 71 in autumn sowing was on average 3-4 times higher than that of spring sowing (Fig. 5). Seed yield is a complex trait that receives the interactive effects of many other plant traits, which are in turn International Journal of Agriculture and Forestry 2014, 4(2): 82-87 85 influenced by their genetic structures and the environment where the plant is grown. Thus the direct evaluation and improvement of seed yield itself may be misleading due to the influence of the environmental component. Therefore, it is essential to analyze the data for the relative contribution of various components to yield performance. The simple correlation is an important tool for this purpose. The positive correlation was observed between grain yield and 100 seeds weight (0.74 **) (Table 3). Several reports have shown the effect of genotype × environment interaction on chickpea yield and some agronomic characters.13 An extensive study of 23 chickpea genotypes grown at 37 (1985–1986) and 39 (1986–1987) locations in western Asia, North Africa, Mediterranean Europe and Latin America revealed significant differences in seed yield [5]. Seed storage constituent such as protein is affected by both genetic makeup and the environment. In spring sowing the highest grain protein content belonged to Flipo 41510 and Torbat 5 cultivars (Kabuli cultivars), and in autumn sowing the highest protein content belonged to Totbat 5 and Ardabil 50 cultivars (Fig. 6). The negative correlation (-0.125) was observed between the protein and grain yield of chickpea cultivars. But the Torbat 5 has high grain yield and protein content. This results confirmed by Frimpong et al. (2009) that showed protein concentration and seed yield were negatively correlated (r = −0.19, P = 0.01) in desi but not in kabuli (r = −0.06, ns). No correlation was observed between protein concentration and seed weight in desi (r = 0.04, ns) and kabuli (r = −0.02, ns) chickpeas. Findings of Ravi and Harte (2009) showed that fat, ash and protein contents were found to be higher in Kabuli than in Desi and the values were respectively 5.3%, 3.5% and 24.9% for Kabuli and 4.3%, 2.2% and 22.6% for Desi. Amal et al. [1] reported that seed size and volume were maximal for chickpea cultivar CNMK-452-2 and indicated that protein content of chickpeas was negatively correlated with seed size, volume and density. Figure 2. Response of height of chickpea genotypes to spring and autumn sowing (data are LS means) Figure 3. Response of leaf greenness index of chickpea genotypes to spring and autumn sowing (data are LS means) 86 Atoosa Rahmani et al.: Agronomic Traits of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Genotypes as Affected by Spring and Autumn Sowing Figure 4. Response of grain yield of chickpea genotypes to spring and autumn sowing (data are LS means) Figure 5. Decrease and increase of chickpea grain yield in autumn sowing than spring sowing (data are LS means) Figure 6. Response of protein content (%) of chickpea genotypes to spring and autumn sowing (data are LS means) International Journal of Agriculture and Forestry 2014, 4(2): 82-87 87 Seed number per pod Pod number per plant 100 seeds weight Grain yield Plant height Greenness index Protein content Table 3. Correlation between agronomic traits of chickpea genotypes Seed number per pod 1 0.205 -0.655 ** 0.220 0.117 -0.027 0.145 Pod number per plant 1 0.060 0.910 ** 0.348 ** -0.227 0.301 ** 100 seeds weight 1 0.740 ** -0.021 -0.067 -0.180 Grain yield 1 0.294 * 0.272 * -0.401 ** Plant height 1 -0.041 0.182 Greenness index 1 -0.021 Protein content 1 They showed that ILC-195 cultivar had the highest protein content (22.41%) while CNMK-452-2 had the lowest (17.53%). The description of grain yield and useful characteristics is an important prerequisite for effective and efficient utilization of germplasm collections in breeding programs. A small mini core collection of landrace, breeding line and improved chickpea cultivars has been assembled and we have shown that there is a high level of morphological diversity for most of the traits observed in autumn and spring sowing, which may be useful for future breeding endeavors. There is an opportunity to bring about improvement of the crop yield through direct and indirect selection as well as improving of these characters through hybridization using the germplasm collections in Iran. Finally the Torbat 5 and Ardabil 50 selected as the best cultivars of our experiment. We concluded that autumn sowing was achieved more yield as 217 kg/ha in comparison with spring sowing. REFERENCES [1] Amal B., Maazullah K., Nizkat B.M.K., Sajjad A.A., Chaudry Mand Saeed K.M. (2003). Quality studies of newly evolved chickpea cultivars. Adv. Food Sci., 25, 96-99. [2] Bremner J.M. (1996). Nitrogen-total. In: Sparks, D.K. (Ed.), Methods of Soil Analysis: Chemical Methods Part 3. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, Wisconsin, pp. 1085-1122. [3] FAO. (2010). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. FOASTAT database. http://www.fao.org. [4] Frimpong A., Sinha A., Tar’an B., Warkentin T.D., Gossen B.D., Chibbar R.N. (2009). Genotype and growing environment influence chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) seed composition. J. Sci. Food Agric., 89, 2052-2063. [5] Malhotra R.S., Singh K.B. (1991). Classification of chickpea growing environments to control genotype by environment interaction. Euphytica., 58, 5-12. [6] Ozdemir S., Karadavut U. (2003). Comparison of the performance of autumn and spring sowing of chickpeas in a temperate region. Turk. J. Agric. For. 27, 345-352. [7] Ravi R., Harte J.B. (2009). Milling and physicochemical properties of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) varieties. J. Sci. Food Agric. 89, 258-266. [8] Singh K.B. (1997). Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Field Crop. Res. 53, 161-170. [9] Summerfield R.J., Virmani S.M., Roberts E.H., Ellis R.H. (1990). Adaptation of chickpea to agroclimatic constraints. In Chickpea in the Nineties: Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop on Chickpea Improvement (Eds B. J. Walby & S. D. Hall), pp. 61–72. Patancheru, India: ICRISAT. [10] Talebi R., Ensafi M.H., Baghebani N., Karami E., Mohammadi K. (2013). Physiological responses of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) genotypes to drought stress. Environ. Exp. Biol. 11, 9-15. [11] Talebi R., Rokhzadi A. (2013). Genetic diversity and interrelationships between agronomic traits in landrace chickpea accessions collected from ‘Kurdistan’ province, northwest of Iran. Int. J. Agric. Crop Sci. 5(19), 2203-2209.

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