Potential diversity of sulfur resistance of situbondo plant species in banyuputih River, East Java
- (0) Download
https://www.eduzhai.net/ International Journal of Agriculture and Forestry 2020, 10(4): 96-101 DOI: 10.5923/j.ijaf.20201004.02 Potential Diversity of Plant Species Against Sulfur Absorption in the Banyuputih River Situbondo, East Java Jati Batoro1,*, Wiyono2 1Department of Biology Natural Sciences Brawijaya University, Jl. Veteran, Malang, East Java, Indonesia 2Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics, Jl. Veteran, Malang, East Java, Indonesia Abstract The diversity of plant species not only serves as a barrier to seawater intrusion but also provides protection from land to sea, originating from Mount Ijen flows the Banyuputih river in the Situbondo region, East Java. The Situbondo-Banyuwangi regency area is a strategic area, so it needs to be preserved its environmental ecosystem. The diversity of mangrove forests, natural sand beaches and riverbank vegetation can be an indication of environmental protection and preservation. The diversity of cultivated and wild plant species also has an indication of the pH state. Likewise, the types of flora around the Banyuputih river have an indication that they can reduce the impact of the infiltration of sulfur levels, thus contributing to groundwater sources. This study aims to determine diversity of flora species along the riverbanks and sand beaches in the environment of the highway at the mouth of the Banyuputih river in Situbondo regency, which is allegedly contaminated with sulfur material from Mount Ijen. To support the environmental function, it is equipped with data on the depth of groundwater sources, location elevations and river water’s pH. The methods used in this research were survey, open-ended interviews, semi-structured and in-depth interviews. The survey results are then collected and diagnosed and the scientific name is determined. Species diversity was recorded around Banyuputih river, Banyuputih sub-district including 26 families (60 species), mangroves 11 families (13 species) and Banongan sand beach 8 families (11 species). The sulfur levels along the Banyuputih river indicate that the diversity of flora has the potential to filter sulfur levels, so the water resources can be utilized for living. Meanwhile, the existence of the diversity of coastal forests and mangroves functions as a barrier to sea water intrusion, wind and tsunami. Keywords Banyuputih river, Situbondo regency, Flora, Sulfur 1. Introduction Indonesian is an island with an approximately 17.508 islands and length of beaches approximately 81.000 km . There are very large biotic and abiotic in coastal resources. Magrove ecosystems are found in intertidal areas where deposition of sediment occurs . The are dominated by trees, shrub, herb, liana, epiphyte, saprophyte and associated organisms occupying environment at the land or sea. The most important coastal natural resources is mangrove forest. The objectives of this research is to reveal the existence of flora around the Banyuputih river, sand beach and magrove ecosystems in Banyuputih district, Situbondo regency. The area of Banyuputih district is 481.670 km2 consisting of five villages that have sand beaches, river estuaries. Most of the Banyuputih sub-district is flat land with an altitude of 5–60 m above sea level, flat soil conditions and legosol soil * Corresponding author: email@example.com (Jati Batoro) Received: Sep. 13, 2020; Accepted: Oct. 15, 2020; Published: Oct. 26, 2020 Published online at https://www.eduzhai.net characteristics. Most of the people along the Banyuputih river are inhabited by the Madurese and it can be indicated from their language accent. Diversity in the coastal environment of southern Java consists of mangove forest, coastal forest and coral reef forest [4,6]. The relationship between humans and the utilization of biodiversity (organisms) in the environment they live in is known as ethnobotany activity [4,12]. Local wisdom are human behavior that is passed down from generation to generation through stories or tales that are not written by word of mouth [7,4,12]. Mount Ijen is a volcanic mountain, located between Banyuwangi and Bondowoso districts and has an altitude of 2.386 m above sea level (ASL). The content of sulfur and calcium elements (Sulfur and Calcium) which is brought from the top of Mount Ijen is a problem that can be overcome for health problems of organisms. The people of the coastal area of Situbondo district-Banyuwangi are the environment affected by the disturbance of sulfur elements [13,14]. The research reveals that the diversity of flora is related to the intrusion of Sulfur levels along the Banyuputih river. International Journal of Agriculture and Forestry 2020, 10(4): 96-101 97 Figure 1. Map of Situbondo Regency (star-study area) 2. Materials and Methods The study was conducted through surveys and direct observations in muara sungai Banyuputih SitubondoBanyuwangi, in May-October 2020 (Fig. 1). This research methods are collecting the plant materials, drying, mounting, preparation and preservation of plant specimens [1,3,8, 11]. The identification and nomenclature of the listed plants were based on the Flora of Java and Flora Malesiana [3,6]. The methods employed were survey, open-ended interviews, semi-structured and in-depth interviews . Meanwhile, the altitude of the research location was carried out using GPS. In determining the water condition: color and pH of the water in Banyuputih river are using pH paper. 3. Results and Discussion Banyuputih river environment Madurese peoples generally engaged in the agricultural sector, rice processing, moor and yards. Therefore, along the Banyuputih river, various cultivated plants are planted such as: tebu (Sacharum officinarum), banana (Musa paradisiaca), mango (Mangifera indica), pete (Parkia speciosa), coconut (Cocos nucifera), cassava (Manihot utilisima), rice (Oryza sativa), corn (Zea mays) etc. (Table 1). The diversity of cultivated plants and wild plants as well as environmental factors such as soil and river flow in the area have an indication that it can reduce the impact of sulfur infiltration, thus contributing to water sources. The smell of sulfur around the Banyuputih neighborhood has decreased compared to the location near Mount Ijen (Wiyono, 2017; personal interview, 2020). Sugarcane cultivation has superior growth with very good sugar content, while irrigation uses Banyuputih river. [2,12] reported local wisdom in customary law is used as the main source in managing river resources. Banyuputih river at an altitude of 42 m above sea level (ASL); position S. 07° 45' 06.85"; E. 114° 14' 33.04" has yellow water, pH 4-4-5, slightly sulfuric odor with a pH of 4-4.5 (Fig. 2 A, B).  explained that the acidity in Mount Ijen is less than pH 4 which consists of Calcium, SiO2, Aluminum, Fe, SO4 and Potassium [Wiyono, 2017]. The diversity of plants around the Banyuputih river has an influence on the level of sulfur concentration in its groundwater sources. The depth of groundwater (well) is 12-15 m, but at this time the people around the river are starting to utilize PDAM water sources. Table 1. River Banyuputih No Local name 1 Ceplikan 2 Mangga 3 Kijaran 4 Mbote 5 Kambil 6 Jambe 7 Biduri 8 Wedusan 9 Sundel 10 Kerinyu 11 Gletang 12 Ketul 13 Tempuyung 14 Bandotan Scientific name Ruellia tuberosa Mangifera indica Lannea coromandelica Calocasia esculenta Cocos nucifera Areca catechu Calotropis gigantea Ageratum conizoides Borreria alata Eupatorium inulifolium Tridax procumbens Bidens biternata Emilia sonchifolia Ageratum conyzoides Family Acanthaceae Anacardiaceae Anacardiaceae Araceae Arecaceae Arecaceae Asclepiadaceae Asteraceae Asteraceae Asteraceae Asteraceae Asteraceae Asteraceae Asteraceae Habitus and location Shrub Banyuputih Tree, Banyuputih Tree, Banyuputih Herb, Banyuputih Tree, Banyuputih Tree, Banyuputih Shrub Banyuputih Shrub, Banyuputih Herb, Banyuputih Shrub, Banyuputih Herb, Banyuputih Herb, Banyuputih Herb, Banyuputih Shrub, Banyuputih 98 Jati Batoro and Wiyono: Potential Diversity of Plant Species Against Sulfur Absorption in the Banyuputih River Situbondo, East Java No Local name Scientific name Family Habitus and location 15 Randu alas Bombax sp. Bombaceae Tree, Banyuputih 16 Randu Ceiba petandra Bombaceae Tree, Banyuputih 17 Tusuk konde Heliotropium indicum Boraginaceae Herb, Banyuputih 18 Teki Cyperus rotundus Cyperaceae Herb, Banyuputih 19 Kate mas Euphorbia heterophylla Eupborbiaceae Herb, Banyuputih 20 Jarak pager Jatropha curcas Euphorbiacaeae Shrub, Banyuputih 21 Patikan Euphorbia hirta Euphorbiaceae Herb, Banyuputih 22 Mbako Nicotiana tabacum Euphorbiaceae Shrub, Banyuputih 23 Pohong Manihot utilisima Euphorbiaceae Shrub, Banyuputih 24 Kaliandra Calliandra haematocephala Fabacaeae Shrub, Banyuputih 25 Pete Parkia speciosa Fabaceae Tree Banyuputih 26 Orok-orok Crotalaria striaca Fabaceae Shrub Banyuputih 27 Tom Indigofera sumatrana Fabaceae Shrub, Banyuputih 28 Rendetan Mimosa invisa Fabaceae Shrub, Banyuputih 29 Kacangan Centrosoma pubescent Fabaceae Liana, Banyuputih 30 Mlandingan Leucaena leucocephala Fabaceae Shrub, Banyuputih 31 Gamal Glerisedia maculata Fabaceae Shrub, Banyuputih 32 Putri malu Mimosa pudica Fabaceae Shrub, Banyuputih 33 Sengketan Hyptis suaveolens Labiatae Shrub Banyuputih 34 Waru Hibiscus tiliaceus Malvaceae Tree, Banyuputih 35 Sidoguri Sida rhombifolia Malvaceae Shrub, Banyuputih 36 Mimba Azadirachta indica Meliaceae Tree, Banyuputih 37 Nangka Artocarpus heterophyllus Moraceae Tree, Banyuputih 38 Awar-awar Ficus septica Moraceae Shrub, Banyuputih 39 Serut Streblus asper Moraceae Shrub, Banyuputih 40 Kelor Moringa oleifera Moringaceae Tree, Banyuputih 41 Pisang Musa paradisiaca Musaceae Herb, Banyuputih 42 Jambu klutuk Psidium guajava Myrtaceae Shrub, Banyuputih 43 Salam Eugenia polyantha Myrtaceae Tree, Banyuputih 44 Blimbing wuluh Averrhoa carambola Oxalidaceae Tree, Banyuputih 45 Pandan ri Pandanus tectorius Pandanacae Tree, Banyuputih 46 Nomlang Pasiflora foetida Passiforaceae Liana, Banyuputih 47 Katu Sauropus androgynus Phyllantaceae Shrub, Banyuputih 48 Jagung Zea mays L. Poaceae Grass, Banyuputih 49 Alang-alang Imperata cylindrica Poaceae Grass, Banyuputih 50 Rumput gajah Pennisetum purpureum Poaceae Grass, Banyuputih 51 Bambu Dendrocalamus asper Poaceae Tree, Banyuputih 52 Tebu Sacharum officinarum Poaceae Shrub, Banyuputih 53 Lulangan Eleusine indica Poaceae Grass, Banyuputih 54 Alang-alang Imperata cylindrica Poaceae Grass, Banyuputih 55 Ranti Solanum nigrum Solanaceae Shrub, Banyuputih 56 Pokak Solanum torvum Solanaceae Herb, Banyuputih 57 Pulutan Triumffeta indica Tiliaceae Shrub Banyuputih 58 Pecut kuda Stachypeta jamaicensis Verbenaceae Shrub, Banyuputih 59 Telekan Lantana camara Verbenaceae Shrub, Banyuputih 60 Kayu jati Tectona grandis Verbenaceae Tree, Banyuputih International Journal of Agriculture and Forestry 2020, 10(4): 96-101 99 A B C Figure 2. A. Banyuputih river, Daendeles road. B. Research locations for sugarcane cultivation (Sacharum officinarum) and C. Mimba trees (Azadirachta indica). Photo, J. Batoro No Local name 1 Kambil 2 Biduri 3 Cemara laut 4 Balaran 5 Singkil 6 Ketapang 7 Sidoguri 8 Pandan ri 9 Nomlang 10 Rumput 11 Mimba Table 2. Sand beach Scientific name Cocos nucifera Calotropis gigantea Casuarina equisetifolia Ipomoea pes-caprae Prema sp. Baringtonia asiatica Sida rhombifolia Pandanus tectorius Pasiflora foetida - Azadirachta indica Family Arecaceae Asclepiadaceae Casuarinaceae Fabaceae Lamiaceae Lechythidaceae Malvaceae Pandanaceae Passiforaceae Poaceae Meliaceae Habitus and Locatition Tree, Banongan Shrub, sand beach, Banongan Tree, sand beach, Banongan Liana, sand beach, Banongan Shrub, sand beach, Banongan Tree, sand beach, Banongan Shrub, sand beach, Banongan Tree, sand beach, Banongan Liana, sand beach, Banongan Grass, sand beach, Banongan Tree, sand beach, Banongan No Local name 1 Daruju 2 Bintaro 3 Nipah 4 Api-api 5 Teruntum 6 Kayu buta 7 Kebiul 8 Gedangan 9 Paku laut 10 Tanjang 11 Bakau 12 Tinggi 13 Bogem Table 3. Mangrove area Scientific name Acanthus ilicifolius Cerbera odollam Nypha fructicans Avicenia marina Lumnitzera littorea Exoecaria agallocha Caesalpinia crista Aegiceras corniculatum Achrostichum speciosum Bruguiera cylindrica Rhizophora apiculata Ceriop tagal Sonneratia alba Family Acanthaceae Apocynaceae Arecaceae Avicenniaceae Combretaceae Euphorbiaceae Fabaceae Myrsinaceae Pteridaceae Rhizophoraceae Rhizophoraceae Rhizophoraceae Sonneratiaceae Habitus and location Herb, mangrove or sand beach Tree, mangrove Tree, mangrove Tree, mangrove Tree, mangrove Tree, mangrove Tree, mangrove Tree, mangrove Shrub, mangrove Tree, mangrove Tree, mangrove Tree, mangrove Tree, mangrove The existence of a mangrove environment is also needed to absorb nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) waste released for intensive shrimp pond activities in the sand beach area, Banyuputih district, Situbondo regency [9,10]. The type of sea pine plant, cemara laut (Casuarina equisetifolia L.) is a type of immigrant originating from the Australian continent which grows very well (Figure 3). Banongan beach area, Situbondo district, has a height of 12 m above sea level 100 Jati Batoro and Wiyono: Potential Diversity of Plant Species Against Sulfur Absorption in the Banyuputih River Situbondo, East Java (ASL), position S 07° 42' 30.25"; E.114° 13' 24. 84" is now being developed into a local tourism business with natural beauty and sunrise. Banongan beach flora diversity includes mimba trees (Azadirachta indica), kambil (Cocos nucifera) and sea pine (Casuarina equisetifolia L.) etc. (Table 2). The major magrove flora commonly find and the estuary Banyuputih for example api-api (Avicenia spp.), bakau (Rhizopora spp.), kerinyu, telekan (Lantana camara), grass etc. (Table 3). Canavalia maritima endemic to the coatal dunes located, on sandy beaches in the southern region of the the island of Java . This type has not been found, maybe the location is less extensive.  reported magrove diversity in Papua New Guinea more than 37 species. In the other hand over 50 plant species found in mangrove vegetation in Thailand . The existence of the diversity of coastal plants and mangroves serves as a barrier to intrusion of sea water, wind and tsunami. REFERENCES  Aksornkooe, S., GS. Maxwell, S. Havanond, Panichsuko 1992. Plant in Mangroves. Chalongrat, Bangkok, Thailand. p. 1-120.  Amrullah, T, A. Hakim, R. Safa’at, J. Batoro 2019. Sustainable River Resource Management Based on Local Wisdom: Case Study in Malinau Regency, North Kalimantan Province. International of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJSIET) Vol. 10, Issu 12, p. 193-204.  Backer, CA. & Bakhuizen Van Den Brink Jr., RC. 1968. Flora of Java. N.V. Wolter Noordhoff. Batavia Jakarta.  Batoro, J. 2017. An Ethnobotanical Survey for Tropical Sand Dune Support Greenbelt International Airport Yogyakarta (NYIA) Glagah Village, District Temon, Kulon Progo, Yogyakarta Indonesia. J Coast Zone Manag 2017, 20: 452.  Batoro, J. 2018. Biological Flora of Coastal: Krandan (Canavalia maritima (Aubl.) Urb. in South Coastal Java, Indonesia. Proceding, Seminar International ICGRC.  Batoro, J. R. Azrianingsih, N. Kurniawan 2018. Survey Study Greenbelt Species of Natural Triangulasi Alas Purwo National Park (TN-AP) Banyuwangi Regency, East Java, Indonesia. International Journal of Agriculture and Forestry. 8(4): 139-143. Figure 3. Sand beach in river autfall Banyuputih Banongan, Situbondo district. A. Distribution Ipomoe pescaprae, mimba (Azadirachta indica), Cocos nucifera and cemara laut (Casuarina equisetifolia L.) 4. Conclutions Species diversity was recorded around Banyuputih river, Banyuputih sub-district covering 26 families (60 species), mangroves 11 families (13 species) and Banongan sand beach 8 families (11 species). Sugarcane, tebu (Sacharum officinarum) cultivation has superior growth with very good sugar content, while irrigation uses Banyuputih river. The research reveals that the diversity of flora is related to the intrusion of Sulfur levels along the Banyuputih river. The existence of the diversity of coastal plants and mangroves serves as a barrier to intrusion of sea water, wind and tsunami. ACKNOKLEDGEMENTS The author would like to express their gratitude to Deparment Physics and Department Biology FMIPA Brawijaya University financial (Doctoral grant program) supports during our research. The author would like thank to dean LPPM, Dr. Bambang Susilo MP, and also Mr. Arifin, thesis students, Mr. Purnomo (laboratory assistant) and Fauzan photos collection for using specimen during this research.  Batoro, Wiyono, I. Lutfi 2019. Perceptions of Sacred Site (Petren) and Plant Diversity in Malang, East Java, Indonesia. International Journal of Basic & Applied Sciences IJBAS-IJENS. Vol: 19 No: 6.  Harris, J.G. & MW. Harris 2003. Plant Identification Terminology, An Illustrated Glossary. Spring Lake Publishing, USA.  Harahab, N. and Setiawan 2017. Suitability Index of Magrove Ecotourism in Malang Regency Ecotourism, ECSOFiM: Journal of Economic and Social of Fisheries and Marine.  Muqsith, A, N. Harahab, M. Mahmudi, M. Fadjar 2018. Estimation of Magrove Needs in Suppting Activities of Intensive Shrimp Farm in Banyuputih District Situbondo Regency. Journal Ilmu Perikanan Vol. 9 No. 1.  Percival, N. & JS. Womersley 1975. Floristics and Ecology of mangrove Vegetation of Papua New Guinea. LAE. Botany Bulletin No. 8.  Sutikno, B., A. Hakim, J. Batoro, H. Riniwati 2018. Influence of Green Economic Development trough Local Wisdom, Economic Potensial, and Role of Dairy Cooperative in Pasuruan. Journal Review of Management and Marketing, Vol. 8 (3) p. 81-89.  Wiyono, Sumarno, S. Mariyanto, A. Rahmansyah 2017. Interpretation Capacity of Natural Waters (Sediments) and Depth at Belawan Kaligedang around Ijen Mount with Geoelectric Methods Resistivity Mapping and Metal Content (Fe, Pb). Scientific & Academic Publishing, American Journal of Environmental Engineering. Vol. 7, p. 10-17.  Wiyono, Soemarno, S. Mariyanto, A. Rahmansyah 2017. Interpretation of Natural Water (Sediments) Depth Patterns International Journal of Agriculture and Forestry 2020, 10(4): 96-101 101 around the River Banyuputih Situbondo East Java with Method Geoelectric Resistivity Sounding. Scientific & Academic Publishing, Resources and Environment. Vol 7, p. 1-7. Copyright © 2020 The Author(s). Published by Scientific & Academic Publishing This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution International License (CC BY). http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
... pages left unread,continue reading
Free reading is over, click to pay to read the rest ... pages
0 dollars，0 people have bought.
Reading is over. You can download the document and read it offline
0people have downloaded it