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Reviving, Development and Protection of Springs to Increase Water Security in the Himalayan Region

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Abstract: Springs are the main source of water for drinking, agriculture, livestock feeding and other household consumption in the north-eastern Himalayan states of India. The largest number of populations in this region are completely dependent on these springs for all water needs. But in recent year it was observed that the majority of life-giving perennial springs discharging pattern has become seasonal and concentrated to monsoon period only, due to the change in rainfall duration and intensity, land use land cover and anthropogenic activity in recharge areas. So, water scarcity and demand increased during the non-monsoon period, which is an uncertain situation for the long-term sustainability of the human population in the region. To sustain in this water scarcity condition, adopt suitable springshed and water management practices. Such as reviving restoration and development of perennial springs, protection of springshed and store water when it is in excess. Anthropogenic activity in the springshed area is also affected by the spring discharge pattern and cause drying such as mounting tourist spots and rapidly growing towns and other human activity. In recent years, it was noticed that the water quality degraded due to poor management of springshed. The human activity in springshed is the main cause of water degradation such as agricultural practices, new construction, toilets, sewage, and industrial waste, etc.

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