eduzhai > Life Sciences > Biology >

Robustness of Interpretation of Carbon-14 Ages for Paper, Ink, Papyri, and Parchment

  • Save

... pages left unread,continue reading

Document pages: 28 pages

Abstract: There exists recent formal theoretical evidence that, relative to true ages, Carbon-14 (¹⁴C) ages for fossils of living organisms (man or animals) are lacking in qualitative and quantitative robustness. This study examines the extent to which highlighted recent evidence extends to ¹⁴C ages for Paper, Ink that is derived from wood, Papyri, and Parchments. The formal axiomatic (mathematically theoretical) evidence establishes, relative to true ages for paper and ink, that ¹⁴C ages for either of paper or ink are qualitatively and quantitatively robust. While ¹⁴C ages for Papyri are not quite as robust as ¹⁴C ages for Paper, formal axioms establish that, asymptotically, and relative to true ages for Papyrus plants, ¹⁴C ages for Papyri are qualitatively and quantitatively robust. While ¹⁴C ages for Parchments originating within the same spatial location are shown to be (asymptotically) qualitatively and quantitatively robust, absent adjustments for spatial differences in rates of young carbon formation, the entire universe of ¹⁴C ages for Parchments is lacking in qualitative and quantitative robustness. The preliminary empirical evidence provides unequivocal support for study predictions. In aggregate, while there exist some concerns about robustness of ¹⁴C ages for Parchments, the evidence reveals boundedness of the concerns, with outcome it safely can be asserted that inferences derived from ¹⁴C ages for Paper, Ink that comes from wood, Papyri, and Parchments can be deemed to be robust.

Please select stars to rate!

         

0 comments Sign in to leave a comment.

    Data loading, please wait...
×