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Climate and Water Balance Changes in the Kinneret Watershed: A Review

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Document pages: 9 pages

Abstract: Regional Climate Change studied during 1950-2019aimed at enhancement of aridity was indicated recently in the Lake Kinneret(Israel) watershed. Climate change was indicated by: Higher periodicalfrequency of negative SPI Values (Standard Precipitation Index), decline ofPrecipitation regime and River flow inputs that was followed by decline of LakeKinneret WL and Elevation of ET regime. Nevertheless aridity enhanced theopposite, decline of ET capacities. Underground flows indicated outputsenhancement. The temporal decline of airtemperature during 1940-1980 probably due to the change of ALBEDO Factorwas twisted later into regional temperature elevation. During the 1950s, old lake Hula and surrounding wetlands weredrained and water cover surface was converted to plant cover, whichenhanced sunlight energy reflection. Followed eventual climate change,management legislations were a reduction of water allocation for agriculturalirrigation. A recent public dispute has indicated contradicted conclusions ascausation for WL decline in Lake Kinneret: 1) Enhancement of Agricultural waterconsumption in the Upper Jordan Watershed and 2) Climate change-aridity enhancement. Thispaper confirms thesecond conclusion.

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