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Appropriate Location and Deployment Method for Successful Iron Fertilization

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Document pages: 24 pages

Abstract: “Highnutrient, low chlorophyll (HNLC)” regions were created by locking iron intosedimentary iron sulfides with hydrogen sulfide available from volcaniceruptions in surrounding oceans. Appropriate locations and deployment methodsfor the iron fertilization were far from volcanoes, earthquakes and boundariesof tectonic plates to reduce the chance of iron-locking by volcanic sulfurcompounds. The appropriate locations for the large-scale iron fertilization areproposed as Shag Rocks in South Georgia and the Bransfield Strait in DrakePassage in the Southern Ocean due to their high momentum flux causing efficientiron deployment. The iron (Fe) replete compounds, consisting of natural clay,volcanic ash, agar, N2-fixing mucilaginous cyanobacteria, carbonblack, biodegradable plastic foamed polylactic acid, fine wood chip, andiron-reducing marine bacterium, are deployed in the ocean to stay within asurface depth of 100 m for phytoplankton digestion. The deployment method of Fe-repletecomposite with a duration of at least several years for the successful ironfertilization, is configured to be on the streamline of the AntarcticCircumpolar Current (ACC). This will result in high momentum flux for itsefficient dispersion on the ocean surface where diatom, copepods, krill andhumpback whale stay together (~100 m).Humpback whales are proposed as a biomarker for the successful ironfertilization in large-scale since humpback whales feed on krill, which in turnfeed on cockpods and diatoms. The successful large-scale iron fertilization maybe indicated by the return of the humpback whales if they could not be foundfor a long period before the iron fertilization. On-line monitoring for thesuccessful iron fertilization focuses on the simultaneous changes of thefollowing two groups; the increase concentration group (chlorophyll, O2,Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Di Methyl Sulfide (DMS)) and the decrease concentrationgroup (nitrate, phosphate, silicate, CO2, Dissolved CO2 (DCO2)). The monitoring of chlorophyll-a, nitrate phosphate, and silicate concentrations after deployingthe Fe-replete complex is carried out throughout the day and night for theaccurate measurement of algal blooms.

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