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Geochemical Modeling and Statistical Analysis for Groundwater Evolution Assessment in Wadi Qasab, Sohag, Eastern Desert, Egypt

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Document pages: 29 pages

Abstract: Qasab basin is one of the most promising areas for the sustainable development in the Eastern Desert fringes of the Nile Valley, Egypt. The integration between statistical analysis, stable isotopes as well as geochemical modeling tools delineated the geochemical possesses affecting groundwater quality and detected the main recharge source in Qasab basin. The most of groundwater samples are brackish (88 ), while the minority (12 ) of the samples are fresh. The electrical conductivity of groundwater ranged from 1135 to 10,030 μS cm. The statistical analysis and hydrochemical diagrams suggest that the groundwater quality is mainly controlled by several intermixed processes (rock weathering and agricultural activities). The mineralization of the Pleistocene groundwater is regulated by the rock weathering source, evaporation processes and reverse cation exchange. The isotopic signatures (δ2H and δ18O) represent two groundwater groups. The first group, is enriched with the isotopic signature of δ18O, which ranges from 0.9‰ to 5.5‰. This group is mostly affected by the recent meteoric recharge from the surface water leakage. The second group, is relatively depleted with the isotopic signature of δ18O, reflecting a palaeo recharge source of colder climate. The δ18O‰ varies from &#4510.1‰ to &#456.4‰, indicating upward leakage of the Nubian sandstone aquifer through deep seated faults. The inverse geochemical model reflects that the salinity source of the groundwater samples is due to the leaching and dissolution processes of carbonate, sulphate and chloride minerals from the aquifer matrix. This study can demonstrate the hydrochemistry assessment guide to support sustainable development in Qasab basin to ensure that adequate groundwater management can play to reduce poverty and support socioeconomic development.

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