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Home Point Study of Birds and Mammals Diversity Allied to Humans in Lockdown of COVID-19 at Bharatpur, Chitwan, Nepal

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Document pages: 20 pages

Abstract: The birds and mammals are nature gifted gene banks which differ greatly with variation in altitudes, climates, landscapes, vegetation and availability of food and water. The altitudinal variation in Nepal is 60 m to 8,848 m which affects climatic conditions and habitat types within short distance that influence species diversity of wild animals. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to reveal species richness, behaviors and luring factors for birds and mammals to attract to an urban area of Bharatpur Metropolitan City, the South-central lowland of Nepal. The methods applied to record species diversity of birds and mammals were made from a home point (a point of study made at the North-west corner of verandah in first floor of my home) located in Bharatpur-9, Saradpur, Sitalpath, in the coordinates of 27˚39 55 "N and 84˚26 08 "E. The animal species were observed thrice daily (at 7 AM, 10 AM and 2 PM) for 2 months beginning from 24 March to 23 May 2020 during the period of lockdown of COVID-19 and were listed in “Observation Data Sheet”. The photographs and or videos were taken except one of the species of bats (i.e. Myotis formosus) and six species of birds which were flying swiftly over the sky in 70 m in diameter (i.e. 7,436 square meters or 22 kattha in area) of the home point. The results obtained from my study were; 83 species, 53 genera and 37 families of wild birds; and 6 species, 5 genera and 3 families of wild mammals. Among birds, Dicrurus and Ploceus were recorded the highest 7.54 (4 53); followed by Acridotheres, Megalaima, Merops, Oriolus, Psittacula and Streptopelia with 5.66 (3 53), and remaining twelve genera were found 3.77 (2 53), and thirty three genera were 1.88 (1 53). Similarly, 33.33 (2 6) of Herpestes; and 16.66 (1 6) of each Canis, Vulpes, Pipistrellus and Myotis were recorded among mammals. Conclusively, I found that the species of birds and mammals were lured to human settlement area due to availability of food (i.e. small in vertebrates, kitchen garbage etc.); crops (i.e. maize, sesame etc.); vegetables (i.e. bean); fruits (litchi, mango, berries etc.); nesting places and healthy environment. However, there is great chance of transmission of viral (rabies, foot-mouth disease etc.), bacterial (tuberculosis) and parasitic zoonoses (echinococcosis, toxoplasmosis, helminthiasis etc.) to humans and domesticated animals through feces and saliva droppings in addition to the poultry raiding, biting to people and damage of fruits, vegetables and crops creating conflicts.

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