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Calibration and Validation of the SWAT Model on the Watershed of Bafing River, Main Upstream Tributary of Senegal River: Checking for the Influence of the Period of Study

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Document pages: 25 pages

Abstract: Management of reservoir water resources requires theknowledge of flow inputs in this reservoir. Hydrological rainfall-runoff modelis used for this purpose. There are several types of hydrological modelaccording the description of the hydrological processes: black-box models,conceptual models, deterministic physical based model. SWAT is a semi-distributedhydrological model designed for water quality and quantity. This versatile toolhas been used all around the world to assess and manage water resources. Themain objective of the paper is to calibrate and validate the SWAT model on thewatershed of Bafing located between 10°30 and 12°30 north latitude and between 12°30 and 9°30 west longitude to assess climate changeon this river flows. A DEM with a resolution of 12.5 m × 12.5 m, thedaily average flows and the daily observed precipitations on the period1979-1986 (long period) are used as inputs for the calibration, whileprecipitations for the period 1988-1994 are used for the validation. Thesensitivity analysis was done to detect the most determining coefficientsduring the calibration step. It shows that 19 parameters are required. Then,the effect of the period on the parameters calibration is checked by considering first the whole period of study and then each year of the period ofstudy. The Nash criterion was used to compare the calculated and the observedhygrographs in each case. The results showed that the longer is the period ofcalibration, the more accurate is the Nash criterion. The calibration per yeargave a best Nash criterion except for a single year. During the validation, theparameters calculated on the long period lead to the best Nash criterion. Thevalues of the Nash criterion calibration andvalidation are very suitable. These results of calibration can be used tostudy the long-term evolution of flow at Senegal River on Bafing Makana.

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