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Analyzing Anomalous Topographic Map Drainage System and Landform Evidence as a Glacial History Paradigm Problem: A Literature Review

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Document pages: 19 pages

Abstract: While not usually stated, detailed topographic maps show well-mapped anomalous drainage system and other erosional landform evidence the accepted North American Cenozoic geologic and glacial history paradigm (accepted paradigm) does not permit geomorphologists to satisfactorily explain. A new and fundamentally different paradigm able to explain the drainage system and other erosional landform evidence has recently emerged, but requires what the accepted paradigm considers to be the preglacial (and probably mid-Cenozoic) Bell River drainage system to have formed on a melting continental ice sheet’s floor. The new paradigm’s melting ice sheet had previously eroded bedrock underneath it and caused crustal warping that raised continental regions and mountain ranges so as to create and occupy a deep “hole” while massive and prolonged meltwater floods flowed across rising continental regions and mountain ranges to the south. The new paradigm leads to a completely different middle Cenozoic geologic and glacial history than the accepted paradigm describes and the two paradigms are analyzed according to good science expectations such as using evidence anyone can see, applying common sense logic during each research step, producing consistent results, and simplicity of paradigm generated explanations. The new paradigm uses topographic map evidence anyone can see, appears to use common sense logic during each research step, and produces remarkably consistent results leading to a simpler Cenozoic northern Missouri River drainage basin region geologic and glacial history than what the accepted paradigm describes. Further work is needed to test the new paradigm’s ability to explain drainage system and erosional landform evidence in other geographic regions such as in the Ohio River drainage basin.

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