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End-Cretaceous Quartz Arenite Formation in an Estuarian Environment under Brine Influence, N. Germany; Linked to both Deccan Volcanism and Chicxulub Impact Degassing during Climate Change

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Document pages: 28 pages

Abstract: Maastrichtian off-shore carbonate sediments and transitional estuarian quartz arenite (primarily subarkosic arkosic) deposited in N Germany, underwent indirect effects by end-Cretaceous plume volcanism (Caribbean Arc Antilles, Amirante Arc Seychelles, Deccan Traps) and by the Chicxulub impact during climate change. In addition, brines of local salt structures had increasing influence on pore water chemistry of siliciclastics deposited in rim synclines and sub-rosion bowls during the transition from salt pillow state (Upper Campanian Maastrichtian) to diapirism since the KPgB (66.043 Ma) until end-Paleocene. As main drivers degassing (CO2, SO2 et al.), temperature rise, acid rain metal toxicity of both volcanic and impact origin caused kill effects by acidification (pH-drop) of sea water resp. dissolution processes on land initiated by complex acid mixtures onto both marine and continental sediments; all in all, leaving a remarkable reduction of the clastics’ primary mineral content, accompanied by kaolinite in-situ neoformation (quartz, kaolinite). Furthermore, driving effects even controlled lithofacies and sequence-analytical patterns (LST, TST, HST). Around the Lower Upper Maastrichtian B. (MFS) radiolarian ooze was deposited across flat estuarian mouth channels during an ingression (tsunami), originally as soft pebbles, then diagenetically slightly consolidated. Surprisingly, the radiolarian skeletons normally composed of opal or celestite, were identified as β-quartz and elementary silicon. The latter hitherto unknown in nature, demands extreme reducing conditions (in Industries: by elementary A1, Mg, C) in pore water as possibly given by brines (see Atlantis II-Deep, Red Sea). The top portions of the uppermost Maastrichtian deposits of N Germany were eroded by the KPgB-convulsive events. However, recent publications (i.e. from Seymour Island, Antarctica) make evident that Deccan volcanism played obviously a prime role versus the Chicxulub impact during reversal magnetization (Chron 29 R). Thus, there exists a high probability that plume volcanism had important influence on the quartz arenite in-situ formation by degassing and related acid in combination with brines in trap position of the ascending salt diapirs. Accordingly, Price’s concept (2001) major impacting may cause plate motion, has to be modified towards the version plume mechanism and may have the same or even stronger effect, thereby relating to recent studies on the Arabian Platform, Jordan. A synopsis of Phanerozoic loss of biodiversity-events caused by both plume volcanism and impacting comparatively exposes Homo sapiens since the Industrial Revolution as a geological force in biotic as well as abiotic processes in Earth History.

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