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Estimation of Ground Deformation in Landslide Prone Areas Using GPS: A Case Study of Bududa, Uganda

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Abstract: Landslides are a frequentphenomenon on mountain Elgon, particularly in Bududa district on the SW side ofthis extinct shield volcano. Landslides have led to the destruction of propertyand loss of life we, therefore, need to monitor them. Monitoring how landslidesbuild-up makes it possible to timely evacuate people and build barriers toprotect property against damage by landslides. Residents in Bududa havereported cracks developing in the ground and houses. These cracks continue togrow, suggesting a future catastrophic event. Such an event may resemble the2010 landslide in Bududa, which killed approximately 450 people and destroyedmuch property. In order to mitigate the consequences of a new landslide as muchas possible, we monitored ground motion in Bududa in eleven stations from June2018 to June 2019. Six-hour session GPS observations were made, and deformationwas determined over the observation period, June to September 2018, Septemberto November 2018, November 2018 to February 2019 and February to June 2019. Acongruency test was performed to determine how significant the deformation was.It appeared that the ground deformation differed largely at various monitoredstations, ranging from 0.004 to 0.076 m, 0.001 to 0.067 m and 0 to 0.078 m in theEast, North and vertical directions respectively. The values indicate that mostslopes in the district are unstable, particularly in the wet seasons, whichimplies that future landslides pose a high risk for society.

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