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Nanopesticides and Nanofertilizers and Agricultural Development: Scopes, Advances and Applications

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Document pages: 16 pages

Abstract: Excessive use of pesticides and fertilizers in agriculture in order to increase yields has proved unnecessary because a large part of them remain unused and have negative effects on the environment and human health. Therefore, it is a great challenge for farmers to replace the application of pesticides and fertilizers with nanopesticides and nanofertilizers, with the aim of reducing the use of mineral fertilizers and increasing yields, as well as supporting agricultural development. This review provides a detailed overview of the classification of pesticides, commonly used nanoparticles in agriculture and their function, as well as impact of nanopesticides and nanofertilizers on the environment. The application of nanopesticides and nanofertilizers and new delivery mechanisms to improve crop productivity are reviewed and described. Particularly, the advantage of the nanoencapsulation process is emphasized for both pesticides and fertilizers. For hydrophobic pesticides, it may be a tool to provide greater stability, dispersion in aqueous media, and allowing a controlled release of the active compound, which increases its effectiveness. In nanofertilizers, micro- or macronutrients can be encapsulated by nanomaterials which allow to release of nutrients into the soil gradually and in a controlled way maintaining soil fertility, thus preventing eutrophication and pollution of water resources. Risks assessment of application of nanopesticides and nanofertilizers in agriculture are required for their correct and safe application.

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