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Green and Regional? A Multi-Criteria Assessment Framework for the Provision of Green Electricity for Electric Vehicles in Germany

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Document pages: 34 pages

Abstract: Based on economic and ecological criteria this paper proposes an evaluation framework for the provision of green electricity for charging plug-in electric vehicles in Germany, using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) approach for a Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis. The frame-work allows for a transparent evaluation of the supply of green electricity for electric vehicles from different stakeholder perspectives, without the direct involvement and reassessment by the experts. The relevant criteria for the evaluation are derived from literature, an analysis of eco-labels for electricity tariffs, and 33 expert interviews from four different stakeholder groups (municipal utilities, academia and science, non-governmental organizations, and automobile manufacturers). Eight criteria have been found to be particularly relevant for green electricity service evaluation: regionality, transparency, balancing period, additionality, land use, green-house gas emissions, smart charging (via a flexibility discount), and quality premium. The evaluation framework comprises value scores which represent the degree to which a specific green charging service satisfies a given quality criterion, and combining them with the AHP-weights. The results differ markedly between stakeholder groups and point to the particular importance of additionality, technology-specific greenhouse gas emissions, and transparency. The frame-work seems useful for service design by (municipal) utilities, charge point operators, non-governmental organizations, and aggregators offering smart charging solutions.

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