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Suppression of Cancer Proliferation and Metastasis by a Versatile Nanomedicine Integrating Multiple Therapeutic Mechanisms

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Document pages: 28 pages

Abstract: Cancer therapeutics are varied and target diverse processes in cancer progression. Photodynamic therapy (PDT), photothermal therapy (PTT), and the inhibition of pro-cancer proteases are novel non-invasive anticancer therapeutics that attract increasing attentions for their enhanced specificities and milder systemic toxicities compared to traditional therapeutics (surgery, radio- or chemo-therapies). These modalities offer advantages to compensate for the shortcomings of their counterparts. For instance, PDT or PTT efficiently eliminates locally confined tumor cells while exhibiting no effect on metastatic tumor cells. In contrast, the inhibition of pro-cancer proteases systemically suppresses the proliferation and metastasis of cancer cells but does not eradicate existing cancer cells. To synergize these therapeutics, we hereby report a versatile nanoparticle that integrates the anticancer effects of PDT, PTT, and enzyme-inhibition. This nanoparticle (CIKP-NP) was synthesized by covalently or non-covalently modifying a photothermal nanoparticle with a photosensitizer, a pro-cancer protease inhibitor, and an albumin-binding molecule. After confirming that CIKP-NP encompasses the properties of PDT, PTT, albumin-binding, and enzyme-inhibition at the molecular level, we evaluated the anti-tumor and anti-metastatic effects of CIKP-NP at the cellular level. In addition, through a human breast cancer xenograft mouse model, we demonstrated that CIKP-NP suppressed tumor growth by PDT or PTT effect. Notably, the synergism of PDT and PTT significantly enhanced its anticancer effect. Furthermore, CIKP-NP significantly suppressed cancer metastasis in a lung metastatic mouse model. Beyond demonstrating the anti-tumor and anti-metastatic efficacy of CIKP-NP, our study also suggests a new strategy to synergize multiple anticancer therapeutics.

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