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Analysis of Cobalt Deposition in Periprosthetic Bone Specimens by High Resolution Synchroton XRF in Undecalcified Histological Thin Sections

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Document pages: 21 pages

Abstract: Increasing numbers of implant revisions are a current clinical issue. Interactions of the endoprosthesis biomaterial with the body affect implantation time by wear processes i.e. corrosion and abrasion. Previously, cobalt-chrome implants were shown to cause high levels of cobalt ions being deposited in the bone matrix. To determine a potential functional role of these ions on bone homeostasis, we have developed a non-destructive dual analysis of highly sensitive elemental analysis by synchrotron XRF directly in undecalcified histological bone sections of 4 µm. In this study, samples from 28 hip endoprosthesis carriers (metal-on-metal bearing) with an implant life time of 17 to 1750 days were used. Results were compared to age-matched control specimens. Histological analysis identified areas of bone cell activity and assigned them for XRF measurements. Co-Cr wear particles were identified in the bone marrow. In addition, Co ions were highly enriched in the mineralized bone matrix. The cobalt deposits were not homogeneously distributed and areas of high signal intensity were identified. Co was distinctly deposited in the newly formed osteoid layer, but also within deeper layers of the bone matrix, whereby the Co concentration increased with higher degrees of bone matrix mineralization. In the current study, we determined cobalt accumulations in the bone matrix and showed for the first time via synchrotron XRF with a high spatial resolution on histological slides, that cobalt deposits in the mineralized bone matrix in a mineral-specific way that is dependent upon the implant lifetime.

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