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Ultra-Small Size Gelatin Nanogel as a Blood Brain Barrier Impermeable Contrast Agent for Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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Document pages: 41 pages

Abstract: Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) contrast agents with rapid renal excretion that do not penetrate the blood brain barrier (BBB) and blood cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCFB) are preferred for safer and low-risk diagnosis. Gadolinium (Gd)-conjugated nanoparticles have been proposed for use as such contrast agents; however, the particle size must range between 1 to 7 nm to ensure rapid renal excretion. In this study, three types of gelatin, dissolved in water at varying concentrations of 0.1–2 wt. , were irradiated with 5 kGy γ-rays at 25 °C under aerated conditions to produce ultra-small gelatin nanogels having an average particle size ranging between 5.5 ± 1.9 to 21 ± 3.7 nm. Ultra-small Gd-coordinated gelatin nanogels (GdGN) suitable for use as MRI contrast agents were produced using 1,4,7,10-Tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid mono- N -hydroxysuccinimide ester (DOTA-NHS) and DOTA-butylamine as Gd ligand derivatives. Non-cytotoxicity and effective relaxivity of GdGN as a positive MRI contrast agent were verified using in vivo experiments. Rapid renal excretion of GdGN was observed in mice within 1 h with no accumulation in the liver. GdGN did not migrate across the BCFB in normal mice, thus emphasizing its safety as an MRI contrast agent.

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