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A Steady-State Evaluation of Simple Organic Rankine Cycle (SORC) with Low-Temperature Grade Waste Heat Source

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Document pages: 17 pages

Abstract: Thelow-grade heat source recovery is usually constrained by the physicalcharacteristics of the hot fluid medium. The present work focuses on theimportance of energy recovery fromlow-temperature waste energy sources and its conversion to useful electricalpower. The thermal performance analysis is basedon the utilization of R-123, R-134a, R-290, R-245fa, R-1234ze-E, and R-1233zd-E fluids in a simple organic Rankine cycle (SORC). A wasteenergy source from an industrial sector is suggested to be available at atemperature greater than 110 °C. A hypothetical organic Rankine cycle of 10 kWnominal heat recovery was implemented to evaluate the cycle performance. Itoperates at evaporation and condensationtemperatures of 90 °C and 45 °C, respectively. The selected vaporsuperheat degree at the expander entrance was 5 °C - 15 °C, and the liquid wassubcooled by 5 °C at the discharge port of condenser. The estimated first lawcycle thermal efficiency fell in the range of 6.4 - 7.7 . The results showedthat the thermal efficiencies of R-134a, R-123, R-245fa, R-1233zd-E, andR-1234ze-E were higher than that of R-290 by 10 - 14 , 11 - 12 , 9 - 12 , 4 - 7 and 1 - 3 , respectively. R-1233zd-E, R-1234ze-E, and R-290 showed close thermal efficiencyvalues, and it fell in the range of 6.7 - 7 for the (SORC) at a superheatdegree of 15 °C. At the same superheat degree, the corresponding range ofthermal efficiency for R-134a, R-123 and R-245fa fell within 7.5 - 7.7 .R-134a possessed the highest net power output of the (SORC); it reached a valueof 0.91 kW as predicted at 15 °C superheat degree. Increasing the expandervolumetric efficiency value by 10 improved the cycle thermal efficiency by 10 - 12 .

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