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Evaluation of the Behaviour of Steam Expanded in a Set of Nozzles, in a Given Temperature

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Abstract: Nozzles are essentially adiabatic devices and are used to accelerate a fluid; therefore, isentropic process serves as a suitable model for nozzles. The paper discussed the characteristics of an expanding steam passing through a duct of varying cross-section area. Based on the converging-diverging nozzle, the research investigated the condition of steam at the throat and exit, stating it to be superheated. With a critical temperature and critical velocity of 304.35 oC and 819.11 m s respectively, the minimum area of the nozzle measured 0.35333 m2. The expansion through the set of nozzles was largely isentropic, meaning that it is adiabatic and reversible. It was assumed that the fluid velocity and the fluid properties, change, only in the direction of flow. Nozzles are used, in practice, in steam and gas turbines, in jet engines, in rocket motors, in flow measurement, and in many other engineering applications.

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