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  • 名词的用法

     

    名词可以分为专有名词和普通名词,专有名词是某个(些)人,地方,机构等专有的名称,如Beijing,China等。普通名词是一类人或东西或是一个抽象概念的名词,如:book,sadness等。普通名词又可分为下面四类:
      1)个体名词:表示某类人或东西中的个体,如:gun。
      2)集体名词:表示若干个个体组成的集合体,如:family。
      3)物质名词:表示无法分为个体的实物,如:air。
      4)抽象名词:表示动作、状态、品质、感情等抽象概念,如:work。
    个体名词和集体名词可以用数目来计算,称为可数名词,物质名词和抽象名词一般无法用数目计算,称为不可数名词。归纳一下,名词的分类可以下图表示:
    名词 专有名词 不可数名词
    普通名词 物质名词
    抽象名词
    集体名词
    可数名词
    个体名词

    1.1 名词复数的规则变化
    情况 构成方法 读音 例词
    一般情况 加 -s 清辅音后读/s/ map-maps
    浊辅音和元音后读 /z/ bag-bags /car-cars
    以s, sh, ch, x等结尾 加 -es 读 /iz/ bus-buses/ watch-watches
    以ce, se, ze,等结尾 加 -s 读 /iz/ license-licenses
    以辅音字母+y结尾 变y 为i再加es 读 /z/ baby---babies


    1.2 其它名词复数的规则变化
    1) 以y结尾的专有名词,或元音字母+y 结尾的名词变复数时,直接加s变复数。例如: 
       two Marys     the Henrys
         monkey---monkeys  holiday---holidays  
    2) 以o 结尾的名词,变复数时:
       a. 加s,如: photo---photos   piano---pianos
             radio---radios   zoo---zoos;
       b. 加es,如:potato--potatoes  tomato--tomatoes
       c. 上述a和b两种方法均可,如zero---zeros / zeroes。 
    3) 以f或fe 结尾的名词变复数时:
       a. 加s,如: belief---beliefs  roof---roofs
             safe---safes  gulf---gulfs;
       b. 去f,fe 加ves,如:half---halves  
        knife---knives leaf---leaves  wolf---wolves
        wife---wives  life---lives  thief---thieves;
    c. 上述a和b两种方法均可,如handkerchief: handkerchiefs / handkerchieves。

    1.3 名词复数的不规则变化
    1) child---children  foot---feet  tooth---teeth
    mouse---mice    man---men  woman---women 
    注意:由一个词加 man 或 woman构成的合成词,其复数形式也是 -men 和-women,如an Englishman,two Englishmen。但German不是合成词,故复数形式为Germans;Bowman是姓,其复数是the Bowmans。
    2) 单复同形,如deer,sheep,fish,Chinese,Japanese ,li,jin,yuan,two li,three mu,four jin等。但除人民币的元、角、分外,美元、英镑、法郎等都有复数形式。如:a dollar, two dollars; a meter, two meters。
    3)集体名词,以单数形式出现,但实为复数。例如:
    people police cattle 等本身就是复数,不能说 a people,a police,a cattle,但可以说a person,a policeman,a head of cattle, the English,the British,the French,the Chinese,the Japanese,the Swiss 等名词,表示国民总称时,作复数用,如The Chinese are industries and brave. 中国人民是勤劳勇敢的。
    4) 以s结尾,仍为单数的名词,如:
    a. maths,politics,physics等学科名词,一般是不可数名词,为单数。
    b. news 为不可数名词。
    c. the United States,the United Nations 应视为单数。
       The United Nations was organized in 1945. 联合国是1945年组建起来的。
    d. 以复数形式出现的书名,剧名,报纸,杂志名,也可视为单数。例如:
    "The Arabian Nights" is a very interesting story-book. 《一千零一夜》是一本非常有趣的故事书。
    5) 表示由两部分构成的东西,如:glasses (眼镜) trousers, clothes等,若表达具体数目,要借助数量词 pair(对,双); suit(套); a pair of glasses; two pairs of trousers等。
    6) 另外还有一些名词,其复数形式有时可表示特别意思,如:goods货物,waters水域,fishes(各种)鱼。 

    1.4 不可数名词量的表示
    1)物质名词
    a. 当物质名词转化为个体名词时为可数。
    比较:Cake is a kind of food. 蛋糕是一种食物。 (不可数)
    These cakes are sweet. 这些蛋糕很好吃。 (可数)
    b. 当物质名词表示该物质的种类时,可数。例如:
    This factory produces steel. (不可数)
    We need various steels. (可数)
    c. 当物质名词表示份数时,可数。例如:
    Our country is famous for tea. 我国因茶叶而闻名。
    Two teas, please. 请来两杯茶。
    2) 抽象名词表示具体的事例时也可数。例如:
    four freedoms 四大自由 the four modernizations四个现代化
    物质名词和抽象名词可以借助单位词表一定的数量,如a glass of water 一杯水/ a piece of advice 一则建议。
     
    5. 定语名词的复数
    名词作定语一般用单数,但也有以下例外。
    1) 1) 用复数作定语。例如:
    sports meeting 运动会 students reading-room 学生阅览室
       talks table 谈判桌 the foreign languages department 外语系
    2) man, woman, gentleman等作定语时,其单复数以所修饰的名词的单复数而定。例如:
       men workers  women teachers  gentlemen officials
    3) 有些原有s结尾的名词,作定语时,s保留。例如:
       goods train (货车) arms produce 武器生产
         customs papers 海关文件 clothes brush 衣刷
     4) 数词+名词作定语时,这个名词一般保留单数形式。例如:
    two-dozen eggs 两打鸡蛋  a ten-mile walk 十英里路
    two-hundred trees 两百棵树 a five-year plan. 一个五年计划

    1.6 不同国籍人的单复数
    国籍 总称(谓语用复数) 单数 复数
    中国人 the Chinese a Chinese  two Chinese
    瑞士人 the Swiss a Swiss two Swiss
    澳大利亚人 the Australians  an Australian two Australians
    俄国人 the Russians a Russian two Russians
    意大利人 the Italians an Italian two Italians
    希腊人 the greek a greek two greeks
    法国人 the French a Frenchman two Frenchmen
    日本人 the Japanese a Japanese two Japanese
    美国人 the Americans an American two Americans
    印度人 the Indians an Indian two Indians
    加拿大人 the Canadians a Canadian two Canadians
    德国人 the Germans a Germans two Germans
    英国人 the English an Englishman two Englishmen
    瑞典人 the Swedish a Swede two Swedes
                   
    1.7 名词的格
      英语中有些名词可以加"'s"来表示所有关系,带这种词尾的名词形式称为该名词的所有格,如:a teacher's book。名词所有格的规则如下:
    1) 单数名词词尾加"'s",复数名词词尾没有s,也要加"'s",如the boy's bag 男孩的书包,men's room 男厕所。
    2) 若名词已有复数词尾-s ,只加" ' ",如:the workers' struggle 工人的斗争。
    3) 凡不能加"'s"的名词,都可以用"名词+of +名词"的结构来表示所有关系,如:the title of the song 歌的名字。
    4) 在表示店铺或教堂的名字或某人的家时,名词所有格的后面常常不出现它所修饰的名词,如:the barber's 理发店。
    5) 如果两个名词并列,并且分别有's,则表示"分别有";只有一个's,则表示'共有'。例如:
    John's and Mary's rooms(两间)  John and Mary's room(一间)
    6) 复合名词或短语,'s 加在最后一个词的词尾。例如:a month or two's absence

    1.8 练习
    1. 1.He was eager to make some extra money, since during these years he could hardly live on his_______.
    a. a. little wage b. few wage c. wage d. wages
    2. 2.Most of the houses in the village were burnt to ______ during the war.
    a. a. an ash b. the ash c. ash d. ashes
    3. 3.The students at colleges or universities are making ______ for the coming New Year.
    a. a. many preparations b. much preparation c. preparations d. preparation
    4. 4.Painting in _____ is one of their spare-time activities.
    a. a. oil b. an oil c. oils d. the oil
    5. 5.In the view of the foreign experts, there wasn't ____ oil here.
    a. a. much b. lots of b. a great deal of d. many
    6.The large houses are being painted, but ______.
    a. of great expense b. at a great expense c. in a lot of expenses d. by high expense
    7. 7.The room was small and contained far too ______.
    a. a.much new furniture b. much new furnitures c.many new furniture d. many new furnitures
    8. 8.Jim was late for two classes this morning. He said that he forgot both of the ______.
    a. rooms number b. room number c. room's numbers d. room numbers
    9.Computers can do ______ work in a short time, but a man can not do ______ by himself.
    a great many…many b. much…a great deal c. a great deal of…much d. many…a great many
    10. 10.She didn't know _____ he had been given.
    a. a. how many information b. how many informations c. the number of information d. how much information
    11. 11.He invited all of his ______ to join his wedding party.
    a. comrade-in-arms b. comrades-in-arm c. comrades-in-arms d. comrade-in-arm
    12. 12.All the ______ in the hospital got a rise last month.
    a. women doctors b. woman doctors c. women doctor d. woman doctor
    13. 13.After ten years, all these youngsters became_____.
    a. growns-ups b. growns-up c. grown-up d. grown-ups
    14. 14.The police investigated those _____ about the accident.
    a. stander-by b. standers-by c. stander-bys d. standers-bys
    15. 15.The Nazi kept those ______ in their concentration camp.
    a. prisoner-of-wars b. prisoners-of-war c. prisoners-of-wars d. prisoner-of-war
    16. 16.The manager was greatly appreciate that _____ made by Linda lately.
    a. new reel b. news reel c. new-reels d. news reels
    17. 17.Mary's dress is similar in appearance to her ______.
    a. elder sister b. elder sister's c. elder sisters d. elder sisters dress
    18. 18.All the people at the conference are ______.
    a. mathematic teachers b. mathematics teacher c.mathematics teachers d. mathematic's teachers
    19.Professor Mackay told us that ______ of lead are its softness and its resistance.
    a. a. some property b. properties c. some properties d. property
    20. 20.Physics _____ with matter and motion.
    a. a. deal b. deals c. dealing d. are
    21. 21.He has written several books, but his last works _____ well known among his friends.
    a. a. have b. have been c. is d. are
    22. 22.After he checked up my ______ heart, the doctor advised him to rest for a few days.
    a. a. father-in-law's c. father's-in-law b. b. father-in-law d. father's-in-law's
    23. 23.He told me _____ would come to his birthday party.
    a. a. many Jack friends c. many Jack's friend
    b. b. Jack's many friends d. many friends of Jack's
    24. 24.I had my hair cut at the _____ around the corner.
    a. a.barber b. barbers c. barber's d. barbers'
    25. 25.Yesterday evening we had a lovely evening at ______.
    a. a. Peter and Helen's c. Peter and Helen
    b. b. Peter and Helens d. Peter's and Helen's
    26. 26.______ receives only a small portion of the total amount of the sun's energy.
    a. a. The earth's surface c. The surface of earth
    b. b. The surface earth d. The earth surface
    27. 27.Numerous materials are available to ______.
    a. a. today of designers c. today's of designers
    b. b. today's designers d. today designers
    28. 28.Why did you speak to Peter that way? Don't you know he is an old friend of ______?
    a. a. my brother b. my brothers c. my brother's d. my brother's friend
    29. 29.______ is a well-informed man. He can tell you anything you want to know.
    a. a. This John's old friend c. That's Jahn's old friend
    b. b. This old friend of John d. This old friend of John's
    30. 30.______ is too much for a little boy to carry.
    a. a.A bike's weight c. The weight of a bike
    b. b.The weights of a bike d. Bile's weight
    31. 31.Generally there are ______ television programs for children on Saturday.
    a. a. little b. much c. a large number of d. a large amount of
    32. 32.When they got to the lecture-room, there were ______ left.
    a. a. only few seats b. a very few seats c. only a few seats d. so a few seats
    33. 33.______ travels faster when the zip code is indicated on the envelope.
    a. a. A little mail b. A piece of mail c. A mail d. A small mail
    34. 34.The Department purchased _____

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