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  • 被动语态(讲解)

    被动语态1:英语中语态有两种:主动语态和被动语态。
    语态的作用:语态是动词的一种形式,用来说明主语和谓语之间的关系。
    语态的选用:如果主语是动作的执行者,谓语用主动语态。
    例如:We clean the room every day.
    如果主语是动作的承受者,或者说是动作的对象,谓语则是要用被动语态。
    例如:The room is cleaned every day.
    2:被动语态的各种形式
    1) am/is/are +done
    eg:I'm asked to take care of myself.
    eg:Football is played all over the world.
    2)has /have been done
    eg:This book has been translated into many foreign languages.
    eg:The prices of many goods have been cut again .
    3)am/is /are being done
    eg:A road is being built around the mountain.
    eg:Many new houses are being built in this city.
    4) was/were done
    eg1:This house was built in 1958.
    eg2:His leg was broken in an accident.
    5) had been done
    eg1:A new school had been set up by the end of last year.
    eg2:When the anthem had been played the conference began.
    6) was/were being done
    eg1: meeting was being held when I was there.
    eg2:We were being trained this time last year.
    7) shall/will be done
    eg1:More factories will be built in our city.
    eg2:He will be taken to hospital tomorrow.
    8) shall/will have been done
    eg1:The project will have been completed before July.
    eg2:Your clothes shall have been made for you soon.
    9) should/would be done
    eg1:He told me that his new cloths would be made by his mother.
    10) should/would have been done
    eg1:He told me that his new clothes would have been made very soon.
    3:主动形式表示被动意义
    1)及物动词的不及物用法:主语通常是物,且有着某种内在的特点。句子简短,且一定有付词。
    eg1:Some silks wash well.
    eg2:The pen writes smoothly.
    eg3:The poem reads fluently(流利地).
    eg4:The shoes wear well(很耐穿).
    eg5:The paper tears easily.
    2)否定句
    eg1:The plays won`t act.
    eg2:His novels don`t sell.
    eg3:The door won`t open.
    3)某些日常用语,谓语是进行时态
    eg1:The dinner is cooking.
    eg2:The cakes are baking(烘烤).
    eg3:The book is printing.
    eg4:He paid all that was owing(欠的钱他都还了).
    4)谓语是不及物动词或连系动词。
    eg1:The flowers look beautiful.
    eg2:what he said sounds reasonable.
    eg3:The roses smell sweet.
    eg4:The medicine tastes bitter.
    eg5:The cloth feels soft.
    eg6:The door blew open.
    eg7:The road measures 50 feet across.
    eg8:Sheep feed chiefly on grass.
    4:练习
    1).Put the following sentences into the passive voice (by phrase may be omitted)
    1.People speak English in many countries.
    2.We built this bridge last year.
    3.The tiger in the z00 frightened the little girl.
    4.Xiao Liu has invited you to a lunch party.
    5.You must not take these magazines out of the reading-room.
    6.We shall discuss the problem at tomorrow's meeting.
    7.Has anybody fed the birds?
    8.People will never forget the accident.
    9.You may write this letter in pencil.
    10.They are repairing the car in the garage.
    11.Someone must have turned on the light without your notice.
    12.They have found ways to make waste water clean.
    13.Someone must take care of the children when we go out.
    14.They won't hold the meeting until next Friday.
    15.They gave him a medal for his wonderful work.
    16.The doctor will ask the patient some questions before he gives her medicine.
    17.They made the young man head of the volleyball team.
    18.Someone will tell you how to prepare for the examination.
    19.They criticized me for something wrong that I had done.
    20.Someone has taken the stranger to another hospital.
    21.It surprised me to hear that they wouldn't give him a holiday after his hard work.
    22.People oughtn't to criticize her for this matter.
    23.People will laugh at you if you wear that dress.
    24.They ought to have told you how much money you needed.
    25.I have told him that he didn't satisfy his examiner.
    26.We must finish the work by six o'clock this afternoon.
    27.Do you often clean your room?
    28.They are making this type of radios in shanghai.
    29.Could you carry out the plan on time?
    30.We must pay attention to such problems.
    31.Someone is showing them how to operate the computers.
    32.You should put forward(提出)the questions at the meeting.
    33.They used to practise speaking English together.
    34.He is sure to finish the job by then.
    35.She is going to play the match today.
    36.People are talking about the incident all over the town.
    37.We saw a bus running towards us at that time
    38.They elected her leader of the group.
    39.They had to put off the sports meet because of the rain.
    40.We don't have to write it in such a hurry. 
    2).Make the best choice:
    窗体顶部
    41.Our house_____,  
    A.is getting paint B.is getting painted C.is got painted D.has got to paint
    42.He arrived in Beijing,where he_____his friend.  
    A.was met by B.was met C.was meeting D.met by
    43.The war_____in 1937  
    A.was broken out B.had been broken out C.has broken out D.broke out
    44.The mistakes in the exercises will_____the teacher.  
    A.cross B.be crossing C.be crossed by D.cross by
    45.My brother and I have __________her birthday party.  
    A.been invited B.been invited for C.invited to D.been invited to
    46.It_______this way  
    A.is had to do B.is had to be done C.had to be done D.has to do
    47.It__this way.
     A used to do B.used to be done C.is used to do D.is used to doing
    48._____Chaplin.  
    A.The child's name was called B.The child's name calls C.The child calls D.The child is named
    49.The sports meeting____ .  
    A.is put off B.is to put off C.is to be put off D.puts off
    50.Mary realized she_________  
    A.was making fun of B.was made fun C.was being made fun of D.was being made fun
    51.______to say a thing in that way  
    A.It is considers wrong B.It is considered wrong C.It is considered it's wrong D.It is consiedring wrong
    52.He ordered that the books_______at once.  
    A.would be printed B.would print C.be printed D.print
    53.The story______in China.  
    A.was taken place B.was happened C.took place D.has been taken place
    54.The house_____my parents  
    A.is belong to B.belong to C.belongs to D.is belonged to
    55.He_______by his teacher.  
    A.happened to see B.was happened to see C.happened to be seen D.was happened to be seen
    56.great changes_____in our province.Many tall buildings __________.  
    A.have been taken place, have been set up B.have taken place, have been set up
    C.have been taken place, have been set up D.were taken place, were set up
    57.The hall's____but it's not yet____with lamps.  
    A.furnished, finished B.been finished, been furnished C.being finished, being furnished D.set up, full
    58.The new hall is the tallest building in this town.
    _____from here?  
    A.Can it see B.Can it be seen C.Can it seen D.Can see
    59.As soon as we got to the airport,we found that the plane_____.  
    A.had already taken off B.already took off C.was already taking off D.was already taken off
    60. Some of the hotels in my hometown_________.  
    A.have now been rebuilding B.are now rebuilding
    C.are now being rebuilt D.are rebuilt now
    (Answers to the questions: BADCD,CBDAC,BCCCC,BBBAC )
    怎样学习被动语态 英语动词被动语态在语法书上都有详略不同的交代,但大都着重它的构成形式,例证则往往不够。这种语态似乎在英语句子中比在汉语句子中更多出现,这点是我国初学者所经常忽略的。在某些句子中,英语总是用被动语态、而汉语则绝不能用,如:
    Shakespeare was born in 1564./Moliere was born in Paris.
    初学英语的人接触到这样被动语态的句子恐不免感到奇怪,因为我们在汉语中惯于说"生于某某年"或"某某年生","生于
    巴黎"或"在巴黎出生",从来不说一个人"被生出"。
    在另一些句子中,英语可用主动及被动两种语态,汉语则倾向于用主动,如:
    Everybody likes him./He is liked by everybody.
    汉语"人人喜欢他"看来比"他被人人喜欢"更现成和自然。有人以为这有一个强调的问题,用作主语的词是加以强调的。即
    令如此,按照英语结构写成的"他被大家喜欢"这样的句子,总是别扭。
    下面就十个类别,举出一些句子,说明英语某些动词用于某一意义或在某一场合中常作被动语态。类别当然不能只是十个,这
    儿仅举常见的。每个类别下也只举五个句子,句子中的动词彼此不一样。为方便起见,句子首先采用大家熟知的 The Advanced
    Learner's Dictionary of Current English(ALD),其次是 Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English(LDCE),必要时从其他英美书刊补充少数句子,但不注明出处。
    1.关于生病
    The left lung is affected. _____ALD
    He is confined to the house by illness. ____ ALD
    He was seized with sudden chest pains. ____LDCE
    He's been troubled with a bad back since he was a child. ____LDCE
    John was Invalided out of the army.
    上面这些句子中被动语态在英语中很习惯化,如将动词改为主动语态,有不同程度的不顺。用汉语表达这些句子中的同样的概
    念,就可以不一定用被动语态。
    2.关于疲倦困乏
    He was doneup afterthe long ride. ALD
    He was knocked uP after the longsteen climb. _____ ALD
    He was almost fagged out. ______ ALD
    I'm completely exhausted.____LDCE
    I was spent with the fatigue of the voyage.
    汉语说"累了"、"累垮了"极普通。如说由于某种原因而"累了"、"累垮了",至少在结构上不用被动语态。这和第一类的例子是一致的。
    3.关于喜悦、高兴
    I was delighted to hear the news of your success._____ALD
    We're very pleased to see you here._____ALD
    On hearing of the victory,the nation was transported with joy._____ALD
    She was enchanted with the flowers you sent her. _____ALD
    The children were fascinated by the toys in the shopwindows._____ ALD
    汉语如说"被高兴",将不成文理,说"使……高兴"或"为……高兴",那也不能照英语被动语态去处理。事实上这头一句
    话照汉语是"我高兴地听到……"这虽带点欧化,但目前也通行了。最常见的恐怕还是"听到……我高兴"。无论如何。汉语说"高兴",不能如英语那样用被动语态。
    4.关于阻塞、拖延:
    We're been held up by fog. _____ ALD
    The mountain roads were obstructed by falls of rock._____ALD
    The train was delayed two hours. _____ALD
    I was hindered from getting here.____ALD
    The harbour was blocked by ice._____ALD
    这第二句ALD英汉双解本译成"山路被落下石头所阻塞"。严格地说这句译文似乎欠流畅,尤其不能用于口语。当然,凡是阻力,总是外来的阻力,施于受事的主语,主语处于被动地位,但汉语不能采取

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