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  • 主谓一致 倒装 强调

    主谓一致部分重点,难点导考:
    1.None of…, neither of…, either of…构成的短语作主语的主谓语一致
    1) none of 后面若接的是可数名词,谓语动词用单复数都可以;若接的是不可数名词,就用单数形式
    Eg. None of the money was paid to me.
    连一分钱也没有付给我
    Eg. Neither of them are/ is aware of the danger.他们中没有人意识到那个危险
    2)Neither of …和either of…构成的短语作主语,谓语动词通常用单数形式,但在口语中也可视为复数。
    Eg. Neither of them is/ are found of the arrangement.
    他们两个都喜欢这种安排。

    2.在 “one of + 复数名词或代词 + 定语从句”结构中,分句中的谓语动词用复数形式。当one之前有the only等词修饰时,分句中的谓语动词用单数形式。
    Eg. She is one of the few persons I know who have read the book.
    He is the only one of the boys who has taken part in the competition.

    3. or, either…or…, neither…nor…, not only…but(also)…等连接的并列成分作主语时,根据就近原则处理。离谓语动词近的主语部分是单数,就用单数;离谓语动词近的主语是复数,谓语动词用复数。。当主语后面跟由with, together with, along with, like, in addition to, as well as, as much as , rather than, more than, no less than, except等连接的词组时,其谓语动词的单复数不受这些短语的影响。

    4.名词性分句作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式。

    5.存在句的主语和谓语动词的主谓一致关系,在多数情况下,取决于动词之后 “真实主语”的语法形式。谓语动词通常和最邻近的那个主语一致。
    Eg. There is a book, two pencils and a pen on the desk..
    There are four chairs and a table in the room.

    6.当某些形容词同定冠词the连用表示某类人作主语时,谓语动词用复数;当某些形容词同定冠词连用表示物作主语时,谓语动词用单数。
    Eg. The innocent are often deceived by the unscrupulous.
    天真的人常为奸诈之徒所欺骗。
    We can do the difficult first. The impossible takes a little longer.

    ★ 但是,当某些形容词同定冠词连用作主语指个人时,谓语动词用单数。
    Eg. The accused was acquitted.
    被告获释。

    7.“a number ( a variety) of + 可数名词”作主语时,谓语动词用复数形式。“the number of (数目)和the variety of (种类) + 可数名词”作主语时,谓语动词用单数。

    8.以-ics结尾的名词指一门学科时,常用单数谓语动词形式。但是,当这些名词表示实际内容时,谓语动词则用复数形式。
    Eg. Economics is her major.
    Economics have greatly improved in the country.

    倒装

    倒装部分重点,难点导考:

    1.以neither, nor 或so开头的句子或分句,通常用倒装。Neither或nor用于否定句中,so用于肯定句中。

    Eg. They can answer the question. So can I

    He didn’t attend the party last night, nor did she.

    2. 当某些具有否定意义的词或短语放在句首作状语时,句子为部分倒装。

    常见的这部分词有:hardly, little, never, not until, rarely, seldom等。短语有:in no way, at no time, in no case, by no means, under no circumstances 等以及部分关联词:hardly(scarcely/barely)…when…, no sooner…than…等

    Eg. Seldom have we felt as comfortable as home.

    我们很少象在家里住得那么舒适。

    Not until many years later did the whole truth become known.

    3. 由并列连接词not only…but also…, neither…nor…等连接的句子,如果not only, neither放在句首。应部分倒装。

    4. only位于句首并后跟状语时需用部分倒装。

    Only under the leadership of the party can we lead a happy life.

    5.当从属连词so…that和such…that中的so 和such位于句首时,句子为部分倒装。

    Such was the flood that many people became homeless.

    6. 在连词as或than引导的状语从句中,为了保持局子的平衡,句子可全部倒装,也可局部倒装。

    As is the teacher, so is the pupil.

    As is the father, so is the son.

    强调

    强调句型重点,难点导考:

    1. 强调句型的基本形式和用法

    当被强调的部分指人时,要用who或 that。当被强调部分是宾语,又是指人时,要用whom或that。被强调部分指物时用that。被强调部分是状语时,只能用that.

    Eg. A young scientist solved this problem 5 years ago.

    It was a young scientist who (that)solved this problem 5 years ago (强调主语)

    正是一为年轻的科学家5年前解决了这个问题

    It was this problem that a young scientist solved 5 years ago. (强调宾语)

    一位年轻的科学家5年前解决的正是这个问题。

    It was 5 years ago that a young scientist solved this problem.(强调状语)

    正是5年前一位年轻的科学家解决了这个问题。

    It is only when you nearly lose someone that you become fully conscious of how much you value him. (强调状语从句)

    2.”not…until”结构中的强调形式

    由until引出的短语或从句,所用的强调句型是 “It is(was)not until…that…”

    Eg.He didn’t come home until 12 last night.

    It was not until 12 last night that he came home



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