It was a cold, rainy and wholly miserable afternoon in Washington, and a hot muggy night in Miami. It was Sunday, and three games were played in the two cities. The people playing them and the people watching them tell us much about the everchanging ethnic structure of the United States.
Professional football in the United States is almost wholly played by nativeborn American citizens, mostly very large and very strong, many of them black. It is a game of physical strength. Linemen routinely weigh more than 300 pounds. Players are valued for their weight and muscles, for how fast they can run, and how hard they can hit each other. Football draws the biggest crowds, but the teams play only once a week, because they get so battered.
The 67,204 fans were in Miami for the final game of the baseball World Series. Baseball was once Americas favourite game, but has lost that claim to basketball.Baseball is a game that requires strength, but not hugeness. Agility, quickness, perfect vision and quick reaction are more important than pure strength. Baseball was once a purely American game, but has spread around much of the New World.In that Sundays final, the final hit of the extra inning game was delivered by a native of Columbia. The Most Valuable Player in the game was a native of Cuba. The rosters of both teams were awash with Hispanic names, as is Miami, which now claims the World Championship is a game that may be losing popularity in America, but has gained it in much of the rest of the world. Baseball in America has taken on a strong Hispanic flavor, with a dash of Japanese added for seasoning.
Soccer, which many countries just call football, is the most widely enjoyed sport in the world, In soccer, which many countries just call football, the ethnic tide has been the reverse of baseballs. Until recently, professional soccer in the United States have largely been an import, played by South Americans and Europeans. Now, American citizens in large numbers are finally taking up the most popular game in the world.
Basketball, an American invention increasingly played around the world, these days draws large crowds back home. Likewise, hockey, a game largely imported to the United States from neighbouring Canada. Lacrosse, a version of which was played by Native Americans before the Europeans arrived, is also gaining a keen national following.Sports of all kinds are winning support from American armchair enthusiasts from a variety of ethnic backgrounds.
1. Which of the following can reflect the everchanging ethnic structure of America?
A. Sportsman. B. Audience.
C. Both of them. D. None of them.
2. Who play professional football in the United States?
A. Nativeborn American citizens.
C. South Americans.
D. Both B and C.
3. What is Americas favourite game?
A. Baseball. B. Basketball.
C. Professional football. D. Soccer.
4. Which of the following statements about soccer is true?
A. In soccer and basketball, the ethnic tide is different.
B. Until recently, soccer becomes an important game, so many native Americans play it.
C. It is the most popular game in the world, so many American citizens take up it.
D. Although soccer is the most popular game in the world, American citizens in large numbers do not like it first.
5. The author of the passage wants to tell that ____.
A. Americans like sports and sports reveal much about the changing ethnic structure of the United States
B. in Washington, several games are played in one day
C. Americans like all kinds of games
D. the American games are watched by nativeAmericans and played by people from different countries
It may be the last book youll ever buy. And certainly, from a practical standpoint, it will be the only book youll ever need. No. Its not the Bible or some New Age tome promising enlightenment—although it would let you carry around both texts simultaneously. Its an electronic book—a single volume that could contain a library of information or, if your tastes run toward whats current, every title on todays bestseller list. And when youre done with those, you could refill it with new titles.
Why an electronic book? Computers can store a ton of data and their laptop companions make all that information portable. True enough. But laptops(便携式电脑) and similar portable information devices require a lot of power—and heavy batteries—to keep their LCD screens operating. And LCDs are not easy to read in the bright light of the sun.
Fact is, when it comes to portability, easy viewing, and low power requirements, its hard to beat plain old paper.
So lets make the ink electronic.
Thats the deceptively simple premise behind a project currently coming to fruition at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Some hurdles—mostly having to do with largescale manufacturing—remain, so it will be a few years before you see an electronic book for sale in stores. But the basic technology already exists, developed at the Institutes Media Lab by a team led by physicist Joe Jacobson.Thanks to electronic ink, the book essentially typesets itself, receiving instructions for each page via electronics housed in the spine. From a power standpoint, this process makes the electronic book very efficient. Unlike an LCD screen, which uses power all the time, energy is no longer needed to view the electronic books pages once they are typeset. Only a small battery would be required, as opposed to the large ones needed to power laptop computers and their LCDs.
Convenience, though, is still the main attraction—and that means more than simple portability. Because the information is in electronic form, it can be easily manipulated.
Jacobson thinks an electronic book will be affordable—around $200 for a basic readonly model to about $400 for one that would record your margin scribbles. Some hurdles remain, though, before you can take an electronic book with you anywhere. Paper is produced in long sheets, and Jacobson is still working on the best method to integrate electronic ink into that process. To avoid having to use thousands of tiny wires on each page, the ink itself must be conductive. Such ink was recently demonstrated in the lab but has yet to be produced in volume. “Essentially,” notes Jacobson, “Were trying to print chips.”
Jacobson is confident, however, that this can be done on a large scale. If Jacobson succeeds, he will have made the book for the 21st century.
6. According to the passage, which book is the only book youll ever need?
A. The Bible. B. A single volume.
C. New Age tome. D. An electronic book.
7. About electronic book, which of the following statements is NOT true?
A. It can contain a library of information or every title on todays bestseller list.
B. Although we know the basic technology, we cant see it for sale now.
C. The laptop needs a lot of power to keep LCD screens work, and those screens have shortcoming.
D. You can change the title and the content in the electronic book as you like.
8. What is the premise behind a project of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology?
A. Electronic ink. B. Electronic book.
C. Laptop. D. LCD screen.
9. What is the main difference between an electronic book and a LCD screen?
A. The power they need.
B. The portability they come to.
C. The convenience they make.
D. The content they store.
10.It will be a few years before we can see electronic book for sale because ____.
A. we havent mastered the manufacturing technology yet
B. the electronic ink which must be conductive couldnt be produced in large scale
C. the electronic book will be too expensive to buy
D. you cant take an electronic book with you anywhere
The centenary of the birth of William Faulkner, one of the great modern novelists, was celebrated in September, 1997. Faulkner wrote about the southern states of the United States of America where he grew up, and where his family had an important part to play in the history of that region. His work became a touchstone for insights into the troubled issues of southern American identity, race relations, and the family interrelationships of the oldtime southern gentry.
Faulkner was born in New Albany, Mississippi on September 25, 1897. Despite his interest in writing, he left Oxford High School, Mississippi, without graduating. After World War Ⅰ, he entered the University of Mississippi as a special student, a right to study which was granted to war veterans, although Faulkner had only finished training with the Air Force in Canada, and not entered combat.
Faulkner began to write poems, a verse play, short stories and finished his first novel Sartoris in 1928. His fiction was centred for 14 of the 19 novels published during his lifetime in a fictional region called Yoknapatawpha County. The name is said to stem from the Indian Chickasaw word meaning split land.
In December 1950, Faulkner was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature. When he accepted it in Stockholm, his speech emphasized that he wished to continue writing, but in a positive way that affirmed the power of humanity to prevail over adverse circumstances. As he said in his speech, he still felt that, despite the threat of nuclear war then hanging over the world, the central concern of the writer should be “the problems of the human heart in conflict with itself”. He wanted the tensions and problems that he had cast the spotlight on in the southern states of America to be resolved by the lifeaffirming attitudes and action of his characters.Like playwright Tennessee Williams, Faulkner was a major voice who spoke for the troubled heart of the southern states of America. His achievement is all the more remarkable because, as a schoolboy, he was not only a frequent truant but also reportedly failed to reach pass grades in English class. His collected short stories, novels, poems, allegorical stories and other writings form a legacy of literature which casts profound illumination on the special culture of the South, a culture which developed from a history and social circumstances that were often tumultuous and always unique.
From the focus on a fictional county, and by remaining true to his view of a closeknit but authentic society that reflected the greater world around him, Faulkner in the end fashioned a saga of the Deep South that is one of the major achievements of 20thcentury literature.
11.Which of the following statements about William Faulkner is NOT true?
A. William Faulkners work focuses on several troubled problems of southern America.
B. William Faulkner died one hundred years ago.
C. Although William Faulkner could not graduate from high school, he had great interests in writing.
D. William Faulkner once took part in the army when he was young.
12.Why did William Faulkner write about the southern states of America?
A. They were the place where he grew up and his family took an important role in the history of that region.
B. His work became a touchstone.
C. He cared about the troubled issues of southern America.
D. He felt sympathy for the poor in southern America.
13.How many novels have been published during the lifetime of William Faulkner?
C.19. D.Not be mentioned.
14.Which of the following statements about Tennessee William is true?
A. Both Tennessee William and William Faulkner are playwright.
B. Tennessee William was a major voice who spoke for the troubled people in southern America.
C. Like Faulkner, he once won Nobel Prize for Literature.
D. Tennessee William had to pursue his writing career through difficult times.
15.What was William Faulkners attitude toward the troubled issues of southern America?
A. He reflected them by writing and criticized them.
B. He intended to call on the troubled people to rebel.
C. The troubled issues of southern America just provided many elements for his novels.
D. He advocated to resolve them in positive attitudes and actions.
Since the earliest times in England, the travellers inn has always been a warm and hospitable place, a gathering place for voyagers to rest and recover. The tireless landlord, the local customers sharing drinks and food, the welcoming atmosphere, have all become part of the legend of the typical English country and city life. In later centuries, the English tavern took on the role of community gathering place, being the location where friendly chatter and fierce social debate mixed with business discussions, and food, wine, beer and coffee were consumed as the noise of convivial(酒宴的) exchanges rose.
In modern times, the English pub often continues to function as the communal meeting place, especially for people whose homes are too small to entertain any number of guests or friends. In many Asian countries, the local restaurant serves a similar social function.
In Ireland, the pub has acted as a central attraction for poorer villagers in the rural areas, and as a literary and social focus in the cities. In keeping with the sociable nature of pub gatherings, music as well as talk has become a central part of this institution in Ireland.
Now people around the world are able to experience the friendly nature of the Irish pub, which follows in the wake of its English equivalent as a welcome and growing export. English pubs have been found in America, in parts of Europe and throughout the world where English people have settled. Today the Irish pub is witnessing an outburst of international popularity as Westerners turn away from their television and computer screens and seek to put a human face to their social contacts. They are finding it in the bars and corners of Irish pubs, where Guinness stout, the Irish national drink, is available in the tall, dark creamy pint glasses and Irish music is the regular fare.
In Mr. McCarvilles view, a pub is a place where you and your friends should be able to walk in and have a drink and talk to each other. But in traditional pubs everywhere there is loud raucous music so that customers cant talk. He says that in all the traditional pubs in Australia they are putting poker machines, and Mr. McCarville saw many vacantlooking people gambling. He feels that these pubs are no longer pleasant places to go to have a drink because you cant talk to anyone.“The one place where conversation has always been great is an Irish pub, so everywhere they are set up they become very popular,” he says.
“There is music in them, but it is Irish music. It may be traditional or modern Irish music, but it is happy, infectious music which stimulates the mood of the place and does not overpower it.” So Irish pubs are spreading.
16.The English pub is developed from ____.
A. the Irish pub B. the English inn
C. the Scotch pub D. the travellers inn
17.Whats the function of the English pub?
A. The pub continues to act as a central attraction.
B. It is the literary and social focus.
C. It is the place where you can consume food and wine.
D. It takes the role of community meeting place.
18.Which kind of pub has a growing export?
A. The Irish pub. B. The English pub.
C. The Scotch pub. D. The Australian pub.
19.Accoridng to McCarvilles view, why Irish pub is a warm and hospitable place?
A.There is loud harsh music to stimulate the mood of the pub.
B.Poker machines are put there so that everyone can play while drinking.
C.It is the great place for conversation.
D.You can enjoy happy music in it.
20.In the passage, the author mainly talks about ____.
A. the Irish pub B. the English pub
C. the Scotch pub D. the Australian pub
【详细解答】 仔细阅读后不难发现选择C项“运动员和观众”作为正确答案的依据就在文章第一段最后一句话：The people playing them and the people watching them tell us much about the everchanging ethnic structure of the United States.(运动员们和观众们都能使我们了解很多有关美国总在不断变化的种族结构)。A项和B项不全面，而D项不正确，故均被排除。
【详细解答】 请注意在文章中professional football和soccer之间的区别。前者所说的职业足球指的是美式足球，而后者所说的是英式足球即我们通常概念下的足球。弄清这两者的区别，我们就不难找出本题答案的依据在第二段第一句话：Professional football in the United States is almost wholly played by nativeborn American citizens, mostly very large and very strong, many of them black.(从事美式职业足球运动员几乎都是土生土长的美国人，通常身高体壮，多数为黑人)。B项欧洲人和C项南美人踢的则是职业英式足球，因此B项、C项和D项均不正确，A项“土生土长的美国人”为正确答案。
【详细解答】 A项棒球具有很强的干扰性，因为棒球曾是美国最受欢迎的运动项目。但是文章第三段第二句话清楚说明了Baseball was once Americas favourite game, but has lost that claim to basketball.(棒球曾是美国最受欢迎的运动项目，但现已让位于篮球。)C项未提及，D项英式足球是世界上最受欢迎的体育项目，而非美国人，因此B项“篮球”是正确答案。
【详细解答】 A项在英式足球和篮球中种族的变化趋势不同，这与文章第五段中所述In soccer, ... , the ethnic tide has been the reverse of baseballs.(在英式足球中，……，种族的变化趋势与棒球截然相反。)不相符，故A项不正确。在同一段介绍：Until recently, professional soccer in the United States had largely been an import, played by South Americans and Europeans.(直到最近，美国的职业英式足球队员大部分来自国外，由南美人和欧洲人来踢)。这说明土生土长的美国人踢足球的并不多，B项不正确。大量的美国人开始从事英式足球的运动是如今的事，因此C项的陈述不准确，而只有D项“尽管英式足球是世界上最受欢迎的运动，但是很多美国人并不第一喜欢它”与原文相符。
【详细解答】 你将需要的惟一一本书是什么?不同的人会有不同的回答，因此必须根据文章来选择答案。A项圣经，B项单卷书，C项新时代巨著，D项电子书，这四个答案在文章第一段中都被提到，但是 ... from a practical standpoint, it will be the only book youll ever need. No. Its not the Bible or some New Age tome ... Its an electronic book—a single volume that ... (从实用观点看，这将是你需要的惟一的一本书。不过，这不是《圣经》，也不是新时代巨著……，这是一本电子书——一本单卷书……)由此不难判断出正确答案应为D项。
【详细解答】 本题答案的依据在文章第五段第一句话：Thats the deceptively simple premise behind a project currently coming to fruition at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.(那就是麻省理工学院近来已取得成果的一项科研项目的最简单的前提)。本句中that是个指示代词，很明显指代的是So lets make the ink electronic.(所以，让我们使油墨电子化)中的电子油墨，故A项“电子化油墨”为正确选项。
【详细解答】 电子书和液晶显示屏在文章的第六段给予了详细说明：Unlike an LCD screen, which uses power all the time, energy is no longer needed to view the electronic books pages once they are typeset.(它和液晶显示屏不一样，液晶显示屏时时都离不开电源，而电子书一旦排好字，观看时再也不需要能量)。B项、C项和D项三项中涉及到的便携性、方便性及内容在文章中作者都未作对比，因此排除之而选A项“他们需要的电源不同”。
【详细解答】 本题所问的电子书还得再过几年才有销售的原因在文章第五段中就已提及：Some hurdles—mostly having to do with largescale manufacturing—remain, so it will be a few years before you see an electronic book for sale in stores.(有些难题——多数和大规模生产有关——仍然没有得到解决，所以还得再过几年你才能看到电子书在书店出售)。文章第八段将所提及的难题具体化了：such ink was recently demonstrated in the lab but has yet to be produced in volume.(这种油墨近来已在实验室演示过，但还不能大批量生产)。这里所提油墨即为上句所说的能导电的电子油墨，由此可判断出B项为最佳选项。A项和C项所说与文章内容不相符，而D项虽与文章内容相符，但并非是原因，因此舍弃。
【详细解答】 A项威廉·福克纳的作品集中于美国南方的几个困惑问题，这与文章第一段: His work became a touchstone for insights into the troubled issues of southern American identify, race relations, and the family interrelationships of the oldtime southern gentry.(他的作品成为一种洞察美国南方的特性、种族关系以及南方古老贵族世家的家庭关系等困惑问题的标准。)相一致。文章第二段：Despite his interest in writing, he left Oxford High School, Mississippi, without graduating.(尽管他对写作颇感兴趣，但还是未毕业就从密西西比州牛津镇中学退了学。)和 ... although Faulkner had only finished training with the Air Force in Canada, and not entered combat.(……虽然福克纳在参加加拿大空军后仅仅完成了训练任务，并没有参加过战斗。)证明了C项和D项表述的正确性。B项说福克纳死于100年前，与文章第一句话1997年9月世人举行庆祝活动，纪念杰出的现代小说家之一，威廉·福克纳的100周年诞辰不相符，故为本题答案。
【详细解答】 文章第一段中清楚阐明：Faulkner wrote about the southern states of the United States of America where he grew up, and where his family had an important part to play in the history of that region.(福克纳写的都是美国南方各州的事情，因为他在那儿长大成人，他的家族在那个地区的历史上起过重要作用)。B项他的作品成为一种标准，虽是正确表述，但非本题的回答；C项他关心美国南方的困惑问题与原文的表述有差异，而D项他同情美国南方的穷人，无法在文章中找到依据。因此A项“他在那儿生长，他的家族在那个地区的历史起过重要作用”为最佳选项。
【详细解答】 回答本题问的福克纳一生中发表了多少小说，只要弄清楚文章第三段中的一句话即可：His fiction is centred for 14 of the 19 novels published during his lifetime in a fictional region called Yoknapatawpha County.(福克纳一生中发表的19部作品中的14部都是围绕着一个叫Yoknapatawpha县的虚构的地方而创作的)。由此可知14是围绕Yoknapatawpha县创作的小说的数量，而100是文章提及的福克纳诞辰100周年，因此B项是正确答案。
【详细解答】 本文主要介绍的是威廉·福克纳，提到田纳西·威廉的只有第五段第一句话：Like playwright Tennessee Williams, Faulkner was a major voice who spoke for the trouble heart of the southern states of America.(同剧作家田纳西·威廉一样，福克纳是美国南方各州苦恼不安的心灵的代言人)。由此可判断出B项是正确的。虽然福克纳写过诗剧，但他不是戏剧家，因此A项不正确。C项像福克纳一样，他曾获得诺贝尔文学奖和D项田纳西·威廉笔耕不辍，历经艰辛，这两项在文章中都未提及，因此不能作为正确选项。
【详细解答】 本题问的是威廉·福克纳对待美国南方困惑问题的态度。文章中并未直接陈述，但他在斯德哥尔摩接受诺贝尔文学奖时发表的演说中强调：he wished to continue writing, but in a positive way that affirmed the power of humanity to prevail over adverse circumstances.(他希望自己能继续写作，但是要以一种积极的方式证实人道的力量必能战胜逆境)。同时本段最后还提到：He wanted the tensions and problems that he had cast the spotlight on in the southern states of America to be resolved by the lifeaffirming attitudes and actions of his characters.(对于那些他在作品中曾经引起公众注意的美国南方诸州的紧张形势和棘手问题，他要求用他书中人物的积极人生态度和行动加以解决)。由此可推断出D项“他主张用积极的态度和行动来解决。”为最佳答案。而A项、B项和C项均不适合。
【详细解答】 文章第一段提到：In later centuries, the English tavern took on the role of community gathering place ...(在随后的几个世纪中，英格兰式的小客栈变成了社区的聚会场所)。第二段：In modern times, the English pub often continues to function as the communal meeting place, ...(当今，英格兰式的酒吧仍然起着社区聚会地的作用。)揭示了英格兰式的酒吧和英格兰式的小客栈之间功能的共同处，由此可推断出两者之间的关系。A项爱尔兰酒吧是英格兰式酒吧的一种。C项苏格兰酒吧在文中根本未提及。D项旅行者的客栈说法不准确，因为文章第一句话已明确说明了是在英格兰的旅行者的小客栈而非其他地方的旅行者的小客栈，故本题正确答案为B项。
【详细解答】 文章第二段第一句话清楚阐明了当今英格兰式的酒吧仍然起着社区聚会地的作用，文章第三段介绍：In Ireland, the pub has acted as a central attraction for poorer villagers in the rural areas, and as a literary and social focus in the cities.(在爱尔兰农村，酒吧对贫穷的村民有一种向心力，而在城里却是文化和社交的中心)。由此可见A项酒吧仍有向心力，B项文化和社交中心均不准确。C项享用食物和美酒的地方，这不是酒吧的功能，故舍弃而取D项社区聚会场所为最佳答案。
【详细解答】 C项苏格兰酒吧文中根本未提及，D项澳洲酒吧与问题相去甚远，而B项英格兰式的酒吧是个干扰性强的选项，但只要弄清楚文章第四段第一句话：Now people around the world are able to experience the friendly nature of the Irish pub, which follows in the wake of its English equivalent as a welcome and growing export.(现在人们在世界各地都可以体验到爱尔兰酒吧的温馨气氛，它紧跟英式酒吧之后，成为一种受人们欢迎的出口产品，而且出口量日见增长)。这样就不难判断出正确答案为A项。